Greek philosopher, tutor of young Alexander the Great
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  • Aristotle

    Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384–322 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BCE). His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great starting from 343 BCE. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Aristotle was the first genuine scientist in history ... [and] every scientist is in his debt".

    Reference

    Aristotle, by Christopher Shields, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 29 Jul 2015
    Partial list of sections: Aristotle's Life - The Aristotelian Corpus - Logic, Science, and Dialectic - Essentialism and Homonymy - Category Theory - Aristotelian Teleology - Happiness and Political Association - Rhetoric and the Arts - Aristotle's Legacy
    "Aristotle was sent to Athens at about the age of seventeen to study in Plato's Academy, then a pre-eminent place of learning in the Greek world. Once in Athens, Aristotle remained associated with the Academy until Plato's death in 347, at which time he left for Assos, in Asia Minor, on the northwest coast of present-day Turkey. There he continued the philosophical activity he had begun in the Academy, but in all likelihood also began to expand his researches into marine biology."
    Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    Includes biography, general and detailed reviews of Aristotle's writings on various topics; major sections: Life - Writings - Logic - Metaphysics - Philosophy of Nature - The Soul and Psychology - Ethics - Politics - Art and Poetics
    "Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato's theory of forms."

    Born

    384 B.C.E., in Stagira, Macedonia, Greece

    Died

    322 B.C.E., in Chalcis, Euboea, Greece

    Biography

    Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC)
    Part of the Goodrich Seminar Room; includes bibliography and links to Thales, Plato and others
    "In 335 B.C. he returned to Athens and established the Lyceum, a rival school to the Academy of Plato. Indicative of Aristotle's competing philosophical position, the Lyceum was a center for philosophic contemplation and empirical research. Aristotle's surviving works appear to have been lectures given at the school. They cover a variety of topics, including politics, physics, ethics, economics, a historical analysis of the Athenian Constitution, and much more."

    Web Pages

    Aristotle - Online Library of Liberty
    Includes picture, short biography and links to quotes and works by the author, in particular Constitution of Athens, The Nichomachean Ethics, The Politics and Posterior Analytics
    "Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher who set up a rival academy, The Lyceum, to challenge Plato's Academy. Aristotle wrote influential works in a range of disciplines - politics, physics, ethics, economics - and had a profound impact on Western thought."

    Articles

    Aristotle Called the 2016 Election, by Martin Cothran, 17 Nov 2016
    Argues that, as per Aristotle in Rhetoric, in an election contest between a candidate with an inspiring personality (pathos) vs. another with good character (ethos) or intellect (logos), the former is more likely to win
    "Almost 2,500 years ago, Aristotle wrote his book, Rhetoric. It remains today one of the best books on persuasion ever written. Such a book comes in handy during an event like an election, since an election is what Aristotle might have called a 'rhetorical situation.' It is an event in which two or more people are each trying to persuade the public that he or she is the best person for the job. In his book, Aristotle says that there are three ways in which people are persuaded: ethos, logos, and pathos."
    Aristotle Understood the Importance of Property, by Richard M. Ebeling, 27 Sep 2016
    Discusses Aristotle's views on private property and property rights (contrasting them with those of Plato), the "ends" of human life, economics ("household management"), wealth acquisition, prices, money and related topics
    "When we turn to another famous ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle (384 B.C. – 322 B.C.), we find little of the political regimentation that characterizes his teacher, Plato. ... While Aristotle's answers were incomplete and often misdirected, as well as incorrect, he at least was among the first to ask the types of questions that, centuries later, became part of the heart of economic analysis and understanding."
    Ayn Rand on Aristotle, by George H. Smith, 4 Mar 2016
    Examines Rand's appreciative view of Aristotle based on his epistemological theories while disregarding his comments on slavery, racism and coercive government laws
    "Thus, if Aristotle's rational epistemology did not prevent him from defending racism, slavery, and statism, this could only be because Aristotle himself did not understand the logical implications of his own epistemology. And if later defenders of racism, slavery, and statism were profoundly influenced by Aristotle's theories, this was only because they, too, did not appreciate that such theories were inconsistent with Aristotle's theory of knowledge."
    Ethics Study Guide: Aristotle, by Roderick Long
    Part of study guide to Prof. Long's introductory ethics course; includes biographical details, comments on Aristotle's ethical and political writings, short introductions to Rethoric and Nichomachean Ethics and study questions
    "Aristotle believes that most of his fellow Greeks are mistaken about the nature of the human good, identifying it with wealth or power rather than with virtuous activity. ... Aristotle's theories have been seen as a mere transcription of existing mores only because modern scholars have mistakenly read Aristotle's outlook back into the mores that he is in fact criticizing. ... But a careful reading of his works shows that Aristotle was keenly aware of, and bitterly opposed to, the centralizing political trends of his day."
    Related Topics: Dialectics, Ethics
    Bourgeois Virtues?, by Deirdre N. McCloskey, Cato Policy Report, May 2006
    Offers an apologia (formal defense) of capitalism, in particular of the phrase "bourgeois virtues" as being neither a contradiction in terms nor a lie
    "The virtues came to be gathered by the Greeks, the Romans, the Stoics, the Church, Adam Smith, and recent 'virtue ethicists' into a coherent ethical framework. Until the framework somewhat mysteriously fell out of favor among theorists in the late 18th century, most Westerners did not think in Platonic terms ... They thought in Aristotelian terms of Many Virtues, plural. 'We shall better understand the nature of the ethical character,' said Aristotle, 'if we examine its qualities one by one.'"
    Dialectics and Liberty: A Defense of Dialectical Method in the Service of a Libertarian Social Theory, by Chris Matthew Sciabarra, The Freeman, Sep 2005
    Written ten years after publication of the first of Sciabarra's "Dialectic and Liberty" book trilogy, discusses Hayek's and Rand's dialectical analysis approaches and suggests that such context-keeping analysis is important in radical libertarian theory
    "In fact, the father of dialectics, the man whom Hegel himself called the 'fountainhead' of dialectical inquiry, was Aristotle. In works such as the Topics—the very first theoretical treatise on dialectics—Aristotle presented numerous techniques by which one might gain a more complete picture of an issue by varying one's 'point of view.'"
    First Freedom, by Tom Palmer, Reason, Jun 1993
    Review of Liberty and Nature: An Aristotelian Defense of Liberal Order by Douglas B. Rasmussen and Douglas J. Den Uyl
    "In Liberty and Nature: An Aristotelian Defense of Liberal Order, the authors attempt to ground a defense of (classical) liberal values in the tradition of inquiry initiated by Aristotle. That seems to be quite a challenge, given that Aristotle himself, apart from a few lines critical of Plato's proposals for communism and the abolition of property, was in general either hostile to or unaware of (understandable, given the times) most of the principal elements of classical-liberal political thought ..."
    Related Topics: Rights, Property Rights
    The Philosophical Origins of Austrian Economics, by David Gordon, Mises Daily, 17 Jun 2006
    Surveys the views of the schools of philosophy and economics that influenced or competed with Austrian economics, including Hegel, the Historical School, Franz Brentano, Occam, Karl Marx, Aristotle, Kant, the logical positivists and Karl Popper
    "Aristotle argues that a complete science must start with a self-evident axiom and, by the use of deduction, exfoliate the entire discipline. ... Aristotle also discusses the necessity of self-evident principles in the Nicomachean Ethics. He notes that to justify a proposition, one would normally proceed by citing another proposition. But if matters are left at this, the task is not finished. What in turn justifies the proposition advanced in support of one's original claim?"
    Related Topic: Austrian Economics

    Books

    Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation
        by Henry Babcock Veatch, 1974
    Partial contents: Aristotle Redivivus - Physics: The Nature of Things Physical - Physics: The Nature of Things Animate and Things Human - Varieties of Human Achievement: Ethics, Politics, Poetics and the Arts - After the Physics, Methaphysics
    Aristotle's First Principles
        by Terence Irwin, 1988
    Partial contents: The Problem of First Principles - Inquiry and Dialectic - Constructive Dialectic - Puzzles about Substance - The Formal Cause - Conditions for Science - Puzzles about Science - The Universal Science - The science of Being
    Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism
        by Chris Matthew Sciabarra, 2000
    Partial Contents: Aristotle: The Fountainhead - From Aristotle to Hegel - After Hegel - Defining Dialectics - Foundations - The Market versus the State - Class Dynamics and Structural Crisis - On the Precipice of Utopia - The Dialectical Libertarian Turn

    Books Authored

    A New Aristotle Reader
        by Aristotle, J. L. Ackrill (Editor)
    Contents: Translations - Aristotle's Works - Introduction - Glossary - TEXTS: Logic - Natural Philosophy - Metaphysics - Practical Philosophy - Topics - List of Books
    Related Topic: Philosophy

    Audio

    2. Aristotle, by David Gordon, The History of Politcal Philosophy: From Plato to Rothbard, 5 Jun 2007
    Lecture 2 of 10 of the History of Political Philosophy series, 90 minutes
    "Aristotle, 384-322 BC, joined Plato's Academy in Athens at eighteen and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. He was not a citizen of Athens. His writings constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. He tutored Alexander the Great. That experience provided him with an abundance of supplies to work with. He established a library in the Lyceum."

    Videos


    PHILOSOPHY - The Good Life: Aristotle, by Chris Surprenant, 9 Sep 2015
    Summarises the views of Aristotle, as discussed in his Nicomachean Ethics and Politics, on what constitutes a "good life", why some humans act in a vicious or virtuous manner and what can influence such behaviour
    Liberty & Virtue, by James Otteson, 29 Jun 2011
    Explains why virtuous behaviour presupposes freely taken or uncoerced decisions
    "Not all freely made choices, after all, are good. Some of them are bad. So what's the distinction? The distinction, I think—and I'm going to draw on Aristotle—is when we employ the concept of good judgment, the person of good judgment is the one who makes wise, virtuous choices. So take another step back. How do you get to be a person of good judgment? Well, there are two things that are necessary. First of all, as Aristotle said, you have to practice it. You can't have good judgment if you don't practice. Judgment is a skill. It's like other skills."
    Related Topic: Moral Liberty

    The introductory paragraph uses material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.