Laws and regulations that limit entry into or continued exercise of a particular occupation

Reference

Occupational licensing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Most all developed countries require occupational licenses for everyone from physicians to interior decorators. Licensing in effect creates a regulatory barrier to entry into licensed occupations, and thus results in higher income for those with licenses. On the other hand, licensing is assumed to protect the public interest by keeping incompetent and unscrupulous individuals from working with the public. ..."

Articles

Let's Make 2014 the Year of Freedom for Low-Wage Workers, by Sheldon Richman, 2 Jan 2014
Examines various hindrances to economic independence, in particular occupational licensing, but also zoning, intellectual property and taxes
"Licensing is one way that freedom is limited on behalf of special interests. The licensing regime is overseen by the current practitioners, giving them the power to limit the number of their competitors. This is a double whammy. It locks people out of occupations, and it raises prices to consumers. We're told that licensing exists to protect consumers from shoddy work, but licensing does not protect consumers."
We Shouldn't Have to Ask the State's Permission to Work, by Robert Fellner, 13 Mar 2017
Discusses occupational licensing laws, focusing on the onerous requirements imposed by the state of Nevada
"Decades of empirical research has found that the 'degree of political influence' is 'one of the most important factors in determining whether States regulate an occupation,' according to the authors of the White House report [Occupational Licensing: A Framework for Policymakers, July 2015]. In other words, excessive licensing laws are often advanced by industry insiders — who directly profit from the ability to legally exclude potential competitors. This is cronyism at its worst."
Related Topics: Institute for Justice, Nevada
Crony-in-Chief: Donald Trump epitomizes Ayn Rand's "Aristocracy of Pull", by Steve Simpson, 2 Feb 2017
Examines the issues of "cronyism" or "pull-peddling", suggesting --as Ayn Rand did-- that the solution is "to limit government strictly to protecting rights and nothing more"
"These terms obscure the fact that what people are competing for when they engage in cronyism is the 'privilege' of legally using force .. to prevent them from contracting or associating with others. ... When individuals in a given profession lobby for occupational licensing laws, they are asking government to grant a select group of people a kind of monopoly status that prevents others who don't meet their standards from competing with them — that is, from contracting with willing customers to do business."
Gertrude B. Kelly: A Forgotten Feminist, by Wendy McElroy, The Freeman, Oct 1998
Lengthy profile of Dr. Gertrude B. Kelly (1862–1934), Irish immigrant, individualist feminist and contributor to the Liberty periodical
"'... Woe to the nation that would strive to increase knowledge or happiness at the expense of justice. It will end by not having morality, or happiness, or knowledge.' Using similar logic, Kelly opposed any government attempt to license physicians or regulate medicine because government could not guarantee the safety or quality of medical care. It could only create a quasi-union of medical elites and block progress."
Socialized Medicine in a Wealthy Country, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., Mises Daily, 2 Dec 2006
Discusses the view of socialised medicine held by left-socialists, examining the problems that existed in Soviet-controlled countries as well as current U.S. problems, and urges for a "complete separation of health and state"
"In medical economics, however, we are supposed to believe that physicians are a class set apart like ordained priests with special powers. You are either ordained to practice medicine or you are not. The limits on the numbers – which are built into the cartel of medical schools as well as the licensure system – are nothing but a mercantilist effort to increase prices and incomes. Of course every profession has its licensure system, but the medical one has been uniquely successful in making the barriers to practice incredibly high."
Test your freedom IQ, The Orange County Register, 18 Jun 2006
20 multiple-choice questions covering the role of government, free enterprise, taxes, property rights, free speech, religion, civil liberties, transportation, war and foreign policy, the Nanny State, gun ownership, education and immigration
"You discover the handyman who has been doing odd jobs around the neighborhood, including some construction projects, does not have a state contractor's license. Do you: ... Rejoice that someone is finding a way around the state's occupational licensing laws, which function mainly to reduce competition and raise prices for consumers while offering little if any real protection for consumers?"
NewThe Fight for Free Speech in the Courts, by Paul Sherman, Trevor Burrus, Aaron Ross Powell, Free Thoughts, 18 Mar 2016
Burrus and Powell discuss with Paul Sherman, a senior attorney with the Institute for Justice, about freedom of speech issues, particularly political speech, and occupational licensing
"So if you want to go to Chicago or San Francisco, you can go on a tour in those cities and that tour guide is totally unregulated. He never had to pass a government-issued test and yet the tourism industry in those cities doesn't seem to be suffering as a result. ... We have done occupational speech cases that involve real estate listing services where people want to put up for-sale-by-owner websites and the government says, 'Well, if you want to do that, you have to be a licensed real estate broker,' even though basically all you're doing is putting up an online classified ad."
The Many Monopolies, by Charles W. Johnson, 24 Aug 2011
Describes four ways in which markets are distorted by government interventions, explains Tucker's "Four Monopolies", examines five present-day monopolies and discusses Tucker's libertarian views
"Established businesses stifle competition from below by lobbying for regulatory red tape, extortionist fees, and complex licensing for everything from taxi-driving to hairdressing. Industry standards, which would otherwise be set by social convention and market experimentation, are removed from competition and determined by political pull. High compliance costs insulate incumbents who can afford them from competitors who cannot, shutting the poor out of entrepreneurial opportunities and independent livelihoods."
The Snare of Government Subsidies, by Gary North, Mises Daily, 31 Aug 2006
Explains how government starts by granting a benefit to some group (purportedly for the public interest), someone takes advantage of the system, the group is asked to police itself, cheating grows, a crisis is perceived, leading to increased interventions
"From the era preceding World War I, when the Rockefeller Foundation promoted the government-licensing system that restricted entry into the profession by controlling medical education, the march into the trap of tax-funded medicine began. ... licensing, which is a grant of monopoly rents to those inside the protected profession. The profession elects representatives who sit on government boards, or who actually make up the whole board."