The following individuals and works are referenced by Legge in his commentary and Introduction, and some in our Addenda. Chinese names are given in traditional characters followed by the pinyin romanization and, when used in the original text, the Legge transliteration.

  • Aquinas: Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Christian theologian and philosopher.

  • Mr. Balfour: Frederic H. Balfour (1846-1909), British sinologist.

  • Giordano Bruno: Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Italian philosopher.

  • Bunyan: John Bunyan (1628-1688), English author.

  • Burns: Robert Burns (1759-1796), Scottish poet.

  • Chalmers: John Chalmers (1825-1899), Scottish missionary and translator.

  • Confucius: 孔子 (Kǒngzǐ; 551 BCE-479 BCE), Chinese philosopher.

  • Dong Zhongshu: 董仲舒 (Dǒng Zhòngshū, Tung Kung-shû; 179 BCE-104 BCE), Chinese scholar.

  • Dr. Edkins: Joseph Edkins (1823-1905), British missionary and sinologist.

  • Dr. Eitel: Ernst Johann Eitel (1838-1908), German missionary to China.

  • Canon Farrar: Frederic W. Farrar (1831-1903), English cleric.

  • professor Gabelentz: Hans Georg Conon von der Gabelentz (1840-1893), German linguist and sinologist.

  • Gao You: 高誘 (Gāo Yòu, Kâo Yû; c. 168-212), Chinese scholar.

  • Giles: Herbert Giles (1845-1935), British sinologist, compiler of A Chinese-English Dictionary (1892).

  • P. Jos. de Grammont: Jean-Baptiste-Joseph de Grammont (1736-ca. 1812), French Jesuit missionary to China.

  • Han Fei: 韓非 (Hán Fēi, Han Fei; c. 280 BCE-233 BCE), Chinese philosopher.

  • Han Ying: 韓嬰 (Hán Yīng, Han Ying), Chinese scholar from the 2nd century BCE.

  • Archdeacon Hardwick: Charles Hardwick (1821-1859), English priest and historian.

  • Heguanzi: 鶡冠子 (Héguānzi, Ho-kwan ℨze), Chinese text from the Warring States Period whose author is supposed to have lived in the early third century BCE.

  • Heshang Gong: 河上公 (Héshàng gōng, Ho-shang Kung), author of a commentary on the Dao De Jing who lived in the first century CE.

  • Kung-chuan Hsiao: 蕭公權 (Xiāo Gōngquán; 1897-1981), Chinese scholar.

  • Huainan: 劉安 (Liú ān, Hwâi-nan; 164 BCE-122 BCE), Chinese prince, editor of the Huainanzi—淮南子 (Huáinán zi, Hwâi-nan ℨze). In his commentary, Legge uses Huainan to refer to the person or sometimes the book, and sometimes explicitly Huainanzi for the book.

  • Huangdi: 黃帝 (Huángdì, Hwang-Tî), legendary Chinese emperor supposed to have reigned during the 27th century BCE.

  • Jiao Hong: 焦竑 (Jiāo Hóng, ℨiâo Hung; 1540-1620), Chinese philosopher.

  • apostle John: one of the Twelve apostles of Jesus (6-100 CE). Legge equates him to John the Evangelist in the notes to chapter 1.

  • Julien: Stanislas Julien (1797-1873), French sinologist.

  • Kangxi dictionary: 康熙字典 (Kāngxī zìdiǎn, Khang-hsî), Chinese dictionary compiled in the early 18th century by order of the Kangxi Emperor.

  • Kumārajīva: कुमारजीव (Sanskrit, Kumâragîva; 334-413), Buddhist monk.

  • Laozi: 老子 (Lǎozǐ, Lâo-𝔷ze; also, Lao-Tzu, Lao-Tse and similar variants), Chinese philosopher, author of the Dao De Jing, born 604 BCE (as per Legge, The Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 39 (1891), p. 2).

  • Legge: James Legge (1815-1897), Scottish sinologist.

  • Liezi: 列子 (Lièzǐ, Lieh-𝔷ze), Daoist text from the fifth century BCE, authored by the philosopher Lie Yukou—列禦寇 (Liè Yùkòu).

  • Liji: 禮記 (Lǐjì, Lî Kî), collection of texts about customs of the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046 BCE-256 BCE), commonly known as the Book of Rites, written around the third or second century BCE.

  • Liu Xiang: 劉向 (Liú Xiàng, Liû Hsiang; 77 BCE-6 BCE), Chinese scholar.

  • : 呂洞賓 (Lǚ Dòngbīn, Lü; born 796), Chinese scholar.

  • Lu Deming: 陸德明 (Lù Démíng, Lû Teh-ming; 556-630), Chinese scholar.

  • Lû Năng-shih: Most likely a reference to Lu Dian, 陆佃 (Lù Diàn; 1042-1102), Chinese scholar who compiled the Piya dictionary. See also page 40 of The Sacred Books of the East, vol. 39 (1891), where Legge mentions "Lû Tien, who lived 1042-1102".

  • Man, tribe: Indigenous people who lived in southern China.

  • Martineau: James Martineau (1805-1900), English religious philosopher.

  • Medhurst: Walter Henry Medhurst (1796-1857), English missionary, compiler of Chinese and English Dictionary (1842).

  • Mo, tribe: Ethnic group in China, most of whom follow the Mo religion.

  • Morrison: Robert Morrison (1782-1834), British missionary and sinologist, compiler of A Dictionary of the Chinese Language (1815-1823).

  • Frederick W. Mote (1922-2005): American sinologist.

  • Narratives of the School: 孔子家語 (Kǒngzǐ Jiāyǔ), collection of sayings by Confucius.

  • Nestorian Monument of Xi'an: Stone monument found in Xi'an (西安, Xī'ān, Hsî-an) that documented early Christianity in China.

  • Book of Poetry: 詩 or 詩經 (Shī or Shījīng), collection of Chinese poems, known as Classic of Poetry or simply Odes or Poetry, dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BCE.

  • Matthew Raper (1742-1826): English antiquarian, Fellow of the Royal Society.

  • Rémusat: Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832), French sinologist.

  • Seneca: Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE), Roman statesman and philosopher.

  • Shuo Yuan: 說苑 (Shuō Yuàn, Shwo-wăn), collection of stories, known as the Garden of Stories, compiled by Liu Xiang.

  • Sima Guang: 司馬光 (Sīmǎ Guāng, Sze-mâ Kwang; 1019-1086), Chinese historian.

  • Sima Qian: 司馬遷 (Sīmǎ Qiān, Sze-mâ Khien; c. 145 BCE-86 BCE), Chinese historian.

  • Song, dukedom of: 宋 (Sòng, Sung; 11th century BCE-286 BCE), ancient Chinese state.

  • Song emperor, penultimate: 宋徽宗 (Sòng Huīzōng, Sung; 1082-1135, reigned 1100-1126), Chinese emperor.

  • Spinoza: Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), Dutch philosopher.

  • Victor von Strauss: Friedrich Viktor von Strauß (1809-1899), German scholar, publisher of the first German translation of the Dao De Jing.

  • Arthur Waley (1889-1966): English sinologist.

  • Wang Bi: 王弼 (Wáng Bì, Wang Pî; 223-249), Chinese philosopher, author of early commentary on the Dao De Jing.

  • Duke of Wellington: Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), British general who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.

  • Williams: Samuel Wells Williams (1812-1884), American sinologist, compiler of A Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language (1874).

  • Wu Cheng: 吳澄 (Wú Chéng, Wû Khăng; 1249-1333), Chinese philosopher.

  • duke Xi: 魯僖公 (Lǔ Xī Gōng, duke Hsî), ruler of the state of Lu from 659 BCE to 627 BCE.

  • Yang Xiong: 揚雄 (Yáng Xióng, Yang Hsiung; 53 BCE-18 CE), Chinese poet.

  • Yang Zhu: 楊朱 (Yáng Zhū, Yang Kû; 440 BCE-360 BCE), Chinese philosopher.

  • Yan Hui: 顏回 (Yán Huí, Yen Hui; 521 BCE-481 BCE), Confucian disciple.

  • Yi: 易經 (Yìjīng, Yî), ancient Chinese text known as the Classic of Changes or (due to Wade-Giles) the I Ching.

  • Yongle: 永樂 (Yǒnglè, Yung-lo; 1360-1424): Chinese emperor of the Ming dynasty.

  • Zhang Heng: 張衡 (Zhāng Héng, Kang Hăng; 78-139), Chinese polymath.

  • Zhang Zhan: 張湛 (Zhāng zhàn, Kang Kan), Chinese philosopher (fl. ca. 370 CE).

  • Zhuangzi: 莊周 (Zhuāng Zhōu, Kwang-𝔷ze; c. 369 BCE-c. 286 BCE), Chinese philosoper, author of the Zhuangzi. In the notes, Legge uses Zhuangzi to refer to the author or to the book.

  • Zhu Xi: 朱熹 (Zhū Xī, Kû Hsî; 1130-1200), Chinese philosopher.

  • Zigong: 子貢 (Zǐgòng, ℨze-kung), courtesy name of Confucian disciple Duanmu Ci (520 BCE-456 BCE).

  • Zilu: 子路 (Zǐlù, ℨze-lû), courtesy name of Confucian disciple Zhong You (542 BCE-480 BCE).

  • Zuo zhuan: 左傳 (Zuǒ zhuàn, ℨo Kwan), ancient Chinese history covering the Spring and Autumn period (c. 771 BCE-476 BCE).