Territory in southwest Asia, ruled since 2005 by the Jumhūriyyat Al-‘Irāq
  • Gulf War - 1990-91 conflict between Iraq and forces led by the United States, in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
  • Iraq War (2003) - Invasion of Iraq by the U.S. and other countries, purportedly to find weapons of mass destruction

Reference

Iraq - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Iraq (Arabic: العراق‎ al-‘Irāq); officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق Jumhūriyyat al-‘Irāq), is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert. ..."

Measures of Freedom

Iraq | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies: Global Freedom under Pressure
2016: Status: Not Free, Aggregate Score: 27, Political Rights: 5, Civil Liberties: 6
"The Iraqi security forces and their allies in the fight against the Islamic State (IS) militant group made hard-won progress in 2015. IS lost control of significant towns and cities such as Tikrit, Sinjar, and Ramadi, the last of which had fallen to the militants in May but was mostly retaken by late December. However, IS retained control of important areas, including Mosul, Iraq's second-largest city, and stepped up terrorist attacks in the capital and other government-held population centers."

Articles

Iraq after the Gulf War: Sanctions, Part 1, by Rahul Mahajan, Future of Freedom, Nov 2007
Reviews the effect of the sanctions imposed on Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War and the Oil for Food program started in 1996
"Never, however, have there been such comprehensive international restrictions on all exports and imports as were imposed on Iraq after the Gulf War; never have prohibitions on imports been enforced by attaching a country's entire foreign earnings and placing them in a closely monitored bank account, with numerous bureaucratic impediments to disbursement of funds."
Iraq after the Gulf War: Sanctions, Part 2, by Rahul Mahajan, Future of Freedom, Dec 2007
Continues the review of the effect of the sanctions imposed on Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War and the Oil for Food program started in 1996
"The United States, in its partial administration of Iraq through the sanctions, oversaw a decline in literacy, as elementary schools emptied for lack of supplies, and Iraq was forced to impose user fees. It saw the near-total destruction of the middle class and a massive 'brain drain,' as doctors, scientists, engineers, and other socially necessary people fled to the West."
Related Topic: Gulf War
Iraqi Sanctions and American Intentions: Blameless Carnage? Part 1, by James Bovard, Future of Freedom, Jan 2004
Examines the effects of the destruction of Iraqi infrastucture during the 1990-91 Gulf War, the subsequent UN sanctions and the "oil for food" program
"... an epidemiologist and an expert on the effects of sanctions, estimated in 2003 that the sanctions had resulted in infant and young-child fatalities numbering between 343,900 and 529,000. ... Sanctions wreaked havoc on the Iraqi people, in part because the Pentagon intentionally destroyed Iraq's water-treatment systems during the first U.S.-Iraq war ..."
Iraqi Sanctions and American Intentions: Blameless Carnage? Part 2, by James Bovard, Future of Freedom, Feb 2004
Further examination of the effects of the Iraqi sanctions and the hypocritical comments after the 2003 invasion
"After human-rights advocates had harshly condemned sanctions on Iraq for almost a decade, the sanctions suddenly morphed into a causus belli. ... Progressive editor Matthew Rothschild observed that Bush and Blair 'refuse to acknowledge any responsibility for those deaths ...' In reality, the United States government perennially blocked the importation of the necessary equipment and supplies to repair the water system ..."
Iraqi Sanctions: Were They Worth It?, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Jan 2004
Analyses the sanctions imposed on Iraq during the 1990's, and Madeleine Albright's attempt to recant on her statement that the sanctions were "worth it"
"Albright is clearly being disingenuous. Contrary to what she writes, food was initially embargoed, along with everything else but medicine in 1990 after Iraq invaded Kuwait. Although the embargo on food ended in April 1991, Iraq was hampered in importing it because Iraqi oil couldn't be exported. Iraq was heavily dependent on oil exports and food imports: no exports, no imports."
Iraq Quiz, by Jim Cox, 15 Apr 2004
20 questions, with answers
Iraq: The Hidden Horror: 650,000 Iraqis dead - now that's 'liberation'!, by Justin Raimondo, 13 Oct 2006
"... even if the figure of 650,000 is off by half, the vastness of U.S. war crimes in Iraq is quite a shocker. ... The Iraqi government derides the Johns Hopkins numbers, as well they might: either that, or they'd have to admit they were installed into power by a pack of mass murderers. And that would be far too close to the truth."
Mr. Bush's War, by Murray N. Rothbard, The Irrepressible Rothbard: The Rothbard-Rockwell Report Essays of Murray N. Rothbard, Oct 1990
Starts off as a tongue-in-cheek analysis of the rationale for the Gulf War, but then delves into more serious reasons, including the Saudi, petroleum and Rockefeller connections
"Saddam is definitely BAD. But – and here's the point – he was just as bad a few short years ago when he was the heroic 'defender of the free world' against the BAD fanatical mullah-run Shiite Iranians (Remember them?). Remember how, in the extremely bloody eight-year war between Iraq and Iran ... the U.S. 'tilted toward' (in plain English: sided with) Iraq? Well, the current Butcher of Baghdad was the same Butcher of Baghdad then."
Related Topics: Saudi Arabia, Taxation, War
Sanctions: The Cruel and Brutal War against the Iraqi People, Part 1, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Jan 2004
Sanctions: The Cruel and Brutal War against the Iraqi People, Part 2, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Feb 2004
The Noninterventionists Told You So, by Sheldon Richman, 18 Jun 2014
Analyses the 2014 Iraqi situation from the vantage point of noninterventionism, contrasting it with those who still want the Obama administration to intervene
"... those who opposed the George W. Bush administration's invasion of Iraq in March 2003 — not to mention his father's war on Iraq in 1991 and the sanctions enforced through the administration of Bill Clinton — were right. ... There was no ISIS or al-Qaeda in Saddam Hussein's Iraq before the U.S. invasion. ... No one can grasp the complexity of one's own society, ... much less a society with Iraq's unique religious, sectarian, and political culture and history."
Will Congress Finally Face Up to Their Responsibility and Debate Iraq?, by Kevin B. Zeese, 31 Mar 2006
"We are in the midst of a military quagmire in Iraq ... yet the Congress has never declared war. Indeed, they've barely even debated Iraq policy. ... That may finally change. Six members of Congress, three Democrats and three Republicans, are calling for a full debate [for April 5] on ending the Iraq War."
Related Topic: Ron Paul
Democracy: The God That Failed: In Iraq, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, by Justin Raimondo, 12 Oct 2005
"The invasion and conquest of Iraq, and the imposition of a 'democratic' regime at gunpoint, is intended to be a model of the Bush Doctrine in practice. But it doesn't look like the experiment is working. ... In Iraq ... the consequences are much bloodier, with the nation fast descending into all-out civil war ..."
Related Topics: Democracy, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine
Gravity works, by Victor Milán, Rational Review, 3 Feb 2005
Discusses the state of democracy in the United States in the wake of the January 2005 Iraqi parliamentary election
"[Democracy is] all the more patently phony in Iraq, where it's being imposed at gunpoint by a hostile alien invader. ... Let's presume I'm mistaken in all the above; it's happened before. Let us postulate that the elections in Iraq were entirely fair and free, and that the occupying force will abide scrupulously by the outcome. In which case, congratulations: the US has bought itself a brand-new Iranian Islamic Republic. And yes, that's what I meant to type."
Related Topic: United States
If the State Falls, Does Society Crumble?, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., Mises Daily, 25 Jan 2007
Discusses the situation in Iraq four years after the 2003 invasion and evaluates the question of "just how integral is the state to society?"
"Saddam, on the other hand, was very careful to cultivate both necessary pillars of state stability. Yes, he killed enemies, but his preferred method was to buy them off in some way. He had all important religious leaders on the payroll, and helped religious minorities when they needed it. ... The Saddam state, then, was not an organic part of society but it had managed to weave itself carefully into the political, cultural, and economic fabric of the nation – as a means of survival."
Related Topics: The State, Iraq War (2003), Society
Immorality, Inc., by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., Mises Daily, 31 Jul 2006
Argues that the lawlessness and violence in occupied Iraq is due to the immorality of modern day warfare
"Who or what taught the Iraqi people that crime pays, that violence is a tolerable mode of behavior, that rules of social engagement are bunk, that human life has no inherent value? It began with ten years of cruel trade sanctions designed to drive the whole population into sickness and grinding poverty, and then culminated in the 'shock and awe' war than rained mass destruction on their cities and large population centers."
Related Topics: Ethics, Government, Socialism, War
Improve the CIA? Better to abolish it, by Chalmers Johnson, San Francisco Chronicle, 22 Feb 2004
Lists countries where the CIA conducted subversive operations and recommends abolishing the agency.
"According to President George W. Bush and his chief weapons inspector, David Kay, the agency has done it again, misleading the nation about the alleged menace posed by the ousted president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein. ... As for the CIA's prewar intelligence on Iraq, the recently appointed commission of prestigious Americans to investigate its shortcomings is unlikely to be able to tell us anything we do not already know."
Iraq Exit Strategy: America's Path Forward [PDF], by Libertarian Party, 29 Jun 2005
Proposal by the Libertarian National Committee for the U.S. to remove its troops from Iraq and a direct-aid program to allow Iraq to reconstruct its infrastructure (note: the occupation lasted another six years)
"After September 11, 2001, the United States re-examined countries that could be potential threats to national security. Iraq was considered a gathering threat by the Bush administration. It was presented to the American public that Saddam Hussein was actively reconstituting Iraq's nuclear weapons program. Additionally, British intelligence erroneously reported that 'Saddam Hussein sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.'"
Obama's Iraqi Fairy Tale, by Sheldon Richman, 28 Mar 2014
Examines, in devastating detail, Obama's March 2014 remarks about the 2003 Iraqi invasion
"The invasion unleashed a conflagration of sectarian violence between Sunni and Shiites, unseen during Saddam's tenure and consciously facilitated by the U.S. government. Most Sunnis were cleansed from Baghdad. Countless were killed and maimed; millions more became refugees. The fire burns out of control to this day, fueled by the oppression and corruption of al-Maliki, who's earned the moniker 'the Shia Saddam.'"
One Hundred Years in Iraq?, by Sheldon Richman, 4 Apr 2008
Analyses John McCain's comment about staying in Iraq for 100 or more years and his previous comments on the occupation
"McCain is wrong about al-Qaeda in Iraq. By nearly all accounts, it is a minor element in the country, largely despised by its fellow Sunni Muslims. Moreover, the group wasn't even in the country until the United States invaded. Saddam Hussein distrusted Osama bin Laden. Before 2003 an al-Qaeda operative was in northern Iraq, but that was the semi-autonomous Kurdish region that Saddam did not control."
Related Topic: John McCain
Pentagon Whistle-Blower on the Coming War With Iran, by Karen Kwiatkowski, 27 Feb 2007
Interviewed by James Harris and Josh Scheer of Truthdig; topics include possible conflict with Iran, the Pentagon situation prior to the March 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Office of Special Plans, Vietnam, terrorism and neoconservatism
"We have probably, of the 150,000, 160,000 troops we have in Iraq probably 110,000 of those folks are associated with one of those four mega bases. Safely ensconced behind acres and acres of concrete. To operate there indefinitely, no matter what happens in Baghdad, no matter who takes over, no matter if the country splits into three pieces or it stays one. No matter what happens, we have those mega bases, and there's many in Congress and certainly in this administration, Republican and Democrat alike that really like that."
Rationalizing Haditha: The War Party's 'moderates' minimize it - and the crazier neocons deny it, by Justin Raimondo, 7 Jun 2006
"Before we lose the 'will to win' ... Iraqis will regain the will to fight back against a military occupation that has become intolerable. The great irony is that Iraq's much sought-after 'unity' may be achieved by a common hatred for the occupiers, which is beginning to transcend the deep divide separating the country's ethnic and religious cantons."
Road to Empire: An illegal treaty with Iraq seals our fate, by Justin Raimondo, 28 Nov 2007
Discusses the "Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America"
"There's just one big problem for the War Party: the Iraqi constitution requires a vote by the Parliament in order to give the Status of Forces Agreement (or this preliminary declaration of intent) the force of law. And that looks problematic, at best, given the weakness of the Maliki regime."
Related Topic: Imperialism
Stop the Cannon Fodder, by Charley Reese, 27 Jan 2007
"Iraq is an artificial country created at the end of World War I by British colonialism. It has always existed because a powerful central government, wielding its authority in the most savage manner, has forced it to hold together. That is the only history Iraq has. Can any honest American say that 10 years from now, Iraq will be a peaceful and prosperous country with many monuments to the Americans who liberated it?"
Related Topics: Children, War
The Lethal Legacy of U.S. Foreign Intervention, by Sheldon Richman, 12 Feb 2014
Presents examples of the deadly lasting effects of U.S. intervention: continuing sectarian conflicts in Iraq and unexploded bombs in Laos
"Violence is flaring in Iraq, as Sunni Muslims, fed up with the oppressive, corrupt, U.S.-installed and Iran-leaning Shi'a government, have mounted new resistance. ... Iraq was certainly ruled by a bad man, Saddam Hussein, who repressed the majority Shi'a, but also mistreated Sunnis. Yet Iraq was not plagued by sectarian violence before the U.S. military arrived."
Related Topics: Foreign Entanglements, Laos
The State in the Dock, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., 26 May 2006
Reflects on the then ongoing trial of Saddam Hussein (2004-2006) and wonders what would happen if other heads of state, including George W. Bush, were put on trial
"Tariq Aziz, the senior member of Saddam's cabinet, riveted the courtroom the other day with testimony that the current puppet government is led by people who attempted to assassinate Saddam and Aziz in the 1980s. ... There was no democracy in Iraq, so there was no gloss on the fact that Saddam protected his interests first. Everyone seems to agree that most of the violence wrought by the Saddam regime was of a political nature."
The War the Government Cannot Win, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., 1 May 2007
Discusses how government cannnot win the war on terror because economic law is more powerful than the state
"A federal oversight agency went to inspect a sample of eight projects that US officials in Iraq had declared to be a success. Of these eight successes, seven of them were not actually functioning at all due to plumbing and electrical failure, poor maintenance, looting, and just general neglect. Keep in mind that these are the projects that the US government declared successes! The failures must be abysmal beyond belief."
They Don't Mean Well, by Sheldon Richman, 15 Jan 2014
Reviews Barry Lando's article "The American Legacy in Iraq"
"The U.S. government (specifically, the CIA) not only helped to bring Saddam Hussein to power, it supplied him the means and intelligence to use chemical weapons in his aggressive war against Iran in the 1980s. ... Ironically, the U.S. government and its accomplices conducted biological warfare against the Iraqis. ... The resulting deaths of Iraqis, including half a million children, were not unintended consequences, but foreseen results of America's malicious policy."
Related Topic: Foreign Entanglements

Cartoons and Comic Strips

How do you spell Iraq?, by Mike Adams, Dan Berger, 29 Jan 2007
Related Topic: Ron Paul
More Wisdom of the Ages From Bernie and Phil, by Wiley Miller, Non Sequitur, 19 Oct 2014
Declaration of Thingamajig, by Mark Fiore, 22 Jun 2011
On the wars ... hostilities ... thingamajigs of the U.S. empire