The process of gradual transformation of living organisms over time

Reference

Evolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"In biology, evolution is the process by which populations of organisms acquire and pass on novel traits from generation to generation. ... With the publication of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's joint paper in 1858 - followed by Darwin's book Origin of Species in 1859 - the theory of evolution by natural selection became firmly established within the scientific community. ..."

Articles

Herbert Spencer, by Wendy McElroy, 29 Aug 2012
Review of the book Herbert Spencer (2013) by Alberto Mingardi, volume 18 of the "Major Conservative and Libertarian Thinkers" series
"... Spencer based much of his ethics on a theory of moral evolution. In the preface to the last part of Ethics (1893), Spencer himself expressed disillusionment in commenting that 'the Doctrine of Evolution has not furnished guidance to the extent' he had expected. ... Because he wrote of the 'survival of the fittest,' Spencer was accused of being a Social Darwinist who would nod in approval as the weak died miserably. (In fact Spencer wrote at length about the good done by voluntary charity.)"
Related Topic: Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer as an Anthropologist [PDF], by Robert L. Carneiro, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1981
Traces Spencer's contributions to the fields now known as anthropology and sociology and how his concept of cultural evolution was developed
"The following year, 1852, Spencer wrote an article entitled 'The Development Hypothesis' in which he openly rejected the doctrine of special creation, and argued instead that the present forms of plants and animals must have arisen through a gradual, natural process of transmutation. ... Darwin and Wallace were both very impressed by this article."
H.L. Mencken: The Soul Behind the Sass, by Thomas Winslow Hazlett, Reason, Dec 1987
Review of the second edition of Disturber of the Peace: The Life of H.L. Mencken by William Manchester
"While Manchester has some difficulty tracing the source of the animosity, the answer seems clear: Mencken simply stood up to the frauds. Indeed, he hunted them down. When schoolteacher John Scopes was put up on charges of teaching evolutionism in the Monkey Trial in 1925, Henry leaped on the preposterous indictment with glee. He personally hooked Clarence Darrow to defend 'the infidel Scopes' and dashed to Dayton, Tennessee, to brew his famous syndicated accounts of the trial and local tent-revival shows."
Interview with Robert Nozick, by Julian Sanchez, 26 Jul 2001
Topics discussed include: ethics, science and philosophy, Karl Popper and the scientific method, Ayn Rand and epistemology, consciousness, relativism and the academic left and Nozick himself
"Evolution plays a large role in my discussion of necessary truths and metaphysical truths, and I ask 'why would evolution have endowed us with such powerful cognitive capacities to know about all possibilities?' Maybe evolution just gives us 'good enough' theories like Euclidean geometry that are approximately true and able to get us around the world, but when we probe further we discover that they're not strictly speaking accurate."

Books

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution
    by Richard Dawkins, 27 Oct 2004
The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design
    by Richard Dawkins, 1987
The Selfish Gene
    by Richard Dawkins, 1976