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Freedom Founts

Source Materials About Freedom


1. The skilful masters (of the Dào) in old times, with a subtle and exquisite penetration, comprehended its mysteries, and were deep (also) so as to elude men's knowledge. As they were thus beyond men's knowledge, I will make an effort to describe of what sort they appeared to be.


2. Shrinking looked they like those who wade through a stream in winter; irresolute like those who are afraid of all around them; grave like a guest (in awe of his host); evanescent like ice that is melting away; unpretentious like wood that has not been fashioned into anything; vacant like a valley, and dull like muddy water.


3. Who can (make) the muddy water (clear)? Let it be still, and it will gradually become clear. Who can secure the condition of rest? Let movement go on, and the condition of rest will gradually arise.


4. They who preserve this method of the Dào do not wish to be full (of themselves). It is through their not being full of themselves that they can afford to seem worn and not appear new and complete.

Legge's Comments

顯德, 'The Exhibition of the Quality,' that is, of the Dào, which has been set forth in the preceding chapter. Its practical outcome is here described in the masters of it of old, who in their own weakness were yet strong in it, and in their humility were mighty to be co-workers with it for the good of the world.

The variety of the readings in par. 4 is considerable, but not so as to affect the meaning. This par. is found in Huáinán (XII, 23 a) with an unimportant variation. From the illustration to which is is subjoined he understood the fulness, evidently as in ch. 9, as being that of a vessel filled to overflowing. Both here and there such fulness is used metaphorically of a man overfull of himself; and then Lǎozǐ slides into another metaphor, that of a worn-out garment. The text of par. 3 has been variously tampered with. I omit the 1 of the current copies, after the example of the editors of the great recension of the Yǒnglè period (A.D. 1403–1424) of the Míng dynasty.

  1. The character omitted by Legge has been retained in the Chinese rendition above. ↩︎