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Freedom Founts

Source Materials About Freedom


1. Abstaining from speech marks him who is obeying the spontaneity of his nature. A violent wind does not last for a whole morning; a sudden rain does not last for the whole day. To whom is it that these (two) things are owing? To Heaven and Earth. If Heaven and Earth cannot make such (spasmodic) actings last long, how much less can man!


2. Therefore when one is making the Dào his business, those who are also pursuing it, agree with him in it, and those who are making the manifestation of its course their object agree with him in that; while even those who are failing in both these things agree with him where they fail.


3. Hence, those with whom he agrees as to the Dào have the happiness of attaining to it; those with whom he agrees as to its manifestation have the happiness of attaining to it; and those with whom he agrees in their failure have also the happiness of attaining (to the Dào). But when there is not faith sufficient (on his part), a want of faith (in him) ensues (on the part of the others).

Legge's Comments

虛無, 'Absolute Vacancy.' This, I think, is the meaning of the title, 'Emptiness and Nothingness,' an entire conformity to the Dào in him who professes to be directed by it. Such a one will be omnipotent in his influence in all others. The Dào in him will restrain all (spasmodic) loquacity. Those who are described in par. 2 as 'failing' are not thought of as bad men, men given up, as Julien has it, au crime. They are simply ordinary men, who have failed in their study of the Dào and practice of it, but are won to truth and virtue by the man whom the author has in mind. As we might expect, however, the mention of such men has much embarrassed the commentators.

Compare the concluding sentence with the one at the end of par. 1 in ch. 17.