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Copy of the minutes of the Congress of Tucumán declaring the independence of the United Provinces (today, Argentina) (English translation by Freedom Circle)
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  • Act of the Pledge of
    Independence on 9th of July
    of 18161


    In the praiseworthy and most esteemed City of San Miguel del Tucumán, on the ninth day of the month of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixteen: the ordinary session having ended, the Congress of the United Provinces continued its previous discussions on the great and august objective of the independence of the Peoples that form it. There was a universal, constant, and determined clamor of the entire territory for its solemn emancipation from the despotic power of the kings of Spain; the Representatives, however, devoted to such an arduous a matter all the depth of their talents, the rectitude of their intentions, and the interest demanded by the sanction of their fortune, the represented Peoples and posterity; at its end they were asked: If they wanted the Provinces of the Union to be a free Nation, and independent of the kings of Spain, and their Metropolis? They first acclaimed full with the holy ardor of Justice, and one by one they successively reiterated their unanimous and spontaneous determined vote for the independence of the Country, fixing by virtue thereof the following resolution.——


    We, the Representatives of the United Provinces in South America, assembled in General Congress, invoking the Everlasting One who presides over the universe, in the name and by the authority of the Peoples we represent, protesting to Heaven, to the Nations and all men of the Globe the Justice which governs our votes; solemnly declare upon the face of the earth, that it is the unanimous and indubitable will of these Provinces to break the violent ties which have bound them to the kings of Spain: to recover the rights of which they were deprived; and to invest themselves with the high character of a free Nation and independent of King Ferdinand the Seventh, his successors, and Metropolis2. They remain consequently in fact and in law with ample and full power to give themselves the forms that justice demands, and the totality of their present circumstances imposes. All and each one of them thus publish, declare, and ratify committing themselves by our means to the fulfillment and support of this their will under the assurance and guarantee of their lives, assets, and renown. Let it be communicated to whom it may concern for its publication; and as a compliment of the respect due to the Nations, let detail be given in a Manifesto3 the most serious foundations compelling this solemn declaration. Given in the Chamber of Sessions, signed by our hand, sealed with the seal of the Congress, and countersigned by our Representative Secretaries.

    Francisco Narciso de Laprida
    Representative for San Juan, President

    Mariano Boedo
    Vice-President, Representative for Salta

    Dr. Antonio Saenz
    Representative for Buenos Aires

    Dr. José Darragueira
    Representative for Buenos Aires

    Fray Cayetano José Rodriguez
    Representative for Buenos Aires

    Dr. Pedro Medrano
    Representative for Buenos Aires

    Dr. Manuel Antonio Acevedo
    Representative for Catamarca

    Dr. Jose Ignacio Gorriti
    Representative for Salta

    Dr. José Andres Pacheco de Melo
    Representative for Chichas

    Dr. Teodoro Sanchez de Bustamante
    Representative for the City of Jujuy and its Territory

    Eduardo Pérez Vulnes
    Representative for Cordoba

    Tomas Godoy Cruz
    Representative for Mendoza

    Dr. Pedro Miguel Aráoz
    Representative for the Capital of Tucumán

    Dr. Estevan Agustin Gazcon
    Representative for the Province de Buenos Aires

    Pedro Francisco de Uriarte
    Representative for Santiago del Estero

    Pedro Leon Gallo
    Representative from Santiago del Estero

    Pedro Ignacio Rivera
    Representative for Mizque

    Dr. Mariano Sanchez de Loria
    Representative for Charcas

    Dr. Jose Severo Malavia
    Representative for Charcas

    Dr. Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros
    Representative for la Rioja

    Licenciado Geronimo Salguero de Cabrera y Cabrera
    Representative for Cordoba

    Dr. Jose Colombres
    Representative for Catamarca

    Dr. José Ignacio Tames
    Representative for Tucumán

    Fr. Justo de Santa Maria de Oro
    Representative for San Juan

    Jose Antonio Cabrera
    Representative for Cordoba

    Dr. Juan Agustin Maza
    Representative for Mendoza

    Tomás Manuel de Anchorena
    Representative from Buenos Aires

    José Mariano Serrano
    Representative from Charcas, Secretary

    Juan José Paso
    Representative for Buenos Aires, Secretary

    Copy = Doctor Serrano, Representative Secretary = amended = Tucumán = agreed

    It is copy

    Serapion José de Arteaga

    Mariano Serrano

    1. Transcribed from the manuscript copy of the original, recorded on the book of Proceedings of the Congress of Tucumán. See photographic facsimile↩︎

    2. On the 19th of July, in a closed session, the following clause was added: "and any other foreign domination". ↩︎

    3. The Manifesto was published on 2 October 1816 and a copy is available at the same link as in the first footnote. ↩︎