Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory.
The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mining" as of 22 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.