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The business of extracting ores or metals

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory.


How to Destroy Mongolian Mining, by Morgan J. Poliquin, Mises Daily, 20 Jun 2006
Discusses the societal and economics implications of a 68% "windfall profits" tax imposed on copper and gold mining in Mongolian territory
[M]ineral exploration remains one of the riskiest of business ventures, based simply on the complexities of nature and the rarity of zones of concentrated metal. Mineral value cannot be quantified until core samples are taken through a process called drilling, which enables mineral content to be evaluated in three dimensions. Today geologists spend their efforts interpreting layers of expensively acquired scientific data and geological observations, evaluating hundreds of potential targets just to find an area prospective enough to risk the expense of drilling.
Related Topics: Mongolia, Peru, Taxation, Wages

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mining" as of 22 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.