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Territory in east central Asia, ruled since 1992 by the Mongol uls

Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол Улс Monggol Ulus) is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometers separates them.

Geographical type: Territory

Latitude: 46° N — Longitude: 105° E

Area: 1,566,000 km²

ISO 3166-2 code: MN

Measures of Freedom

Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2023: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil, and Economic Freedom
2021: 7.43, Rank: 59, Personal freedom: 7.71, Economic freedom: 7.04
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.39, Rank: 45
Mongolia | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2024
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 86, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 2
President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was in the middle of his second four-year term in 2015 after winning the 2013 presidential election. Prime Minister Chimed Saikhanbileg of the Democratic Party (DP), who took office in 2014, remained at the helm of a coalition government. In August, six cabinet members from the coalition's other major party, the Mongolian People's Party (MPP), were discharged from their positions as part of preparations for the 2016 national elections.


How to Destroy Mongolian Mining, by Morgan J. Poliquin, Mises Daily, 20 Jun 2006
Discusses the societal and economics implications of a 68% "windfall profits" tax imposed on copper and gold mining in Mongolian territory
The Mongolian state ... imposed what it has termed a "windfall profits" tax on mining carried out in that country ... The deserts of Mongolia present difficult challenges to mineral exploration and development such as extreme climate and poor infrastructure that other areas of the world do not have ... The beneficiaries ... would be the Mongolian state and the privileged groups to whom it would decide to dispense the proceeds. Mongolians would be better off building on the new wealth created by a potential copper mine, rather than discouraging risk-takers from finding and developing new mines.
Related Topics: Mining, Peru, Taxation, Wages

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mongolia" as of 22 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.