Freedom Circle logo
Freedom Circle

Where Can You Find Freedom Today?

The right and ability to act and express oneself in a freely chosen manner
See also:
  • FreedomPedia
  • Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled. In philosophy, liberty involves free will as contrasted with determinism. In theology, liberty is freedom from the effects of, "sin, spiritual servitude, [or] worldly ties".

    Featured Topics

    • Anarchism - Political philosophy that considers government unnecessary and advocates instead a stateless society
    • Government - The group of people that exercises authority over a country or other political subdivision
    • Libertarianism - Political philosophy that advocates freedom of action and thought for every human
    • Liberty, Individual - Enjoyment by individuals of social, political and economic rights

    Notable Topics

    • Constitution, United States - The supreme law of the United States of America
    • Law, Rule of - Legal environment where cases are handled in a non-arbitrary manner
    • Liberty, Moral - Freedom to engage in acts purportedly injurious to one's self or one's property
    • Liberty, Symbols of - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell, liberty cap, etc.
    • Liberty, Threats To - Actions by government that restrict individual liberty
    • Rights - Powers and privileges one may properly claim as due
    • Slavery - The condition where one individual is treated as property by another


    Famous Quotes / Quotations about Liberty
    Over 700 categories of quotes from Abortion to Youth, over 2500 authors or sources, and a "daily quotes" email service
    Famous quotes, quotations, sayings, phrases, idioms, proverbs, and axioms about Liberty and the Responsibility that comes with it. Quotes are organized by Name and Category., by Students for Liberty
    A project of Students for Liberty (formerly of the Institute for Humane Studies), also known as SFL Academy, with a worldwide faculty of over 300 experts

    Web Pages

    The Philosophy of Liberty
    Originally a Flash presentation created by Kerry Pearson (also known as Lux Lucre), it is now available as a YouTube video and has been translated to over 40 languages
    The Philosophy of Liberty video and The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible: A Free-Market Odyssey book were written by economist and author Ken Schoolland.


    Classics of Liberty - Online Library of Liberty
    More than 35 titles, including works by Hugo Grotius, Edward Coke, John Lock, Frédéric Bastiat, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, Voltaire, William Godwin, Lord Acton, David Hume, Thomas Hodgskin, J. S. Mill, John Milton and Ludwig von Mises
    The following texts have been selected for being among the most important and influential books in the development of the idea of individual liberty, limited government, and the free market. Each author is represented by only one title in order to have as broad a range of authors as possible.
    An Introduction to the Study of Liberty - Works to Begin with - Online Library of Liberty
    Nineteen titles, including works by Erasmus, Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, J. S. Mill, Lord Acton, Herbert Spencer, Thomas Mackay, Friedrich Hayek and Leonard Read
    The following texts have been selected as being particularly appropriate for those who are new to the study of individual liberty, limited government, and the free market. These works have been written as introductory works or for a broader reading public. Some appeared as newspaper or magazine articles, and some as lectures or talks. It is hoped that these works will lead the reader to explore more of the Online Library of Liberty.


    Aaron Russo's extremism in defense of liberty, by Anthony Gregory, Rational Review, 18 May 2004
    Compares the pluses and minuses of the major 2004 Libertarian Party presidential candidates (Michael Badnarik, Gary Nolan and Aaron Russo) and explains why he endorses Russo
    Badnarik's ... main strategy seems to be to teach the philosophical and constitutional case for liberty ... [Nolan] likes to voice the libertarian message in a way that sounds like liberty can be purchased in time-shares ... [A]s the last half-decent Republican presidential candidate said, "Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice." ... Now is not the time to "sell" liberty. Americans have been buying into the promises of politicians for decades. Now is ... the time to tell Americans ... what they need to hear ... Russo is willing to say to the people what they absolutely need to hear.
    The Abstract Concept of Human Liberty, by Robert LeFevre, The Freeman, Dec 1982
    Discusses how people may be interested in other people, in events or in material things but only a few are interested in ideas, and how each group of people tends to view liberty from those perspectives
    The vast number of those speaking up for freedom ... like to list themselves as supporters ... because they admire other individuals ... [O]nly that remnant which has taken the time to study freedom as ... a body of thought, has any real comprehension of what it is all about ... Human liberty is an abstraction. It is a concept not yet attained in any final way. Indeed, it will probably never be attained as a total condition, for there will always be malfunctioning human beings, just as there are well-functioning children who know nothing at all of any abstraction until they are taught.
    Acton, Lord (1834-1902), by Gregory Gronbacher, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    Acton saw the history of liberty as the unfolding resolution of the tension that exists between moral conscience and corruption. Liberty, he professed, is the only appropriate context for religious virtue, but without religious values as an ultimate ... guide, liberty would inevitably disintegrate into license. Acton claimed that "liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end." ... Acton ... shared the Christian view of a positive liberty, which he summed up with one of his more famous quotes, "Liberty is not the power of doing what we like, but the right of being able to do what we ought."
    Related Topic: John Dalberg-Acton
    Ben Franklin on Liberty, by Gary M. Galles, Mises Daily, 3 Feb 2003
    List of select quotes by Franklin on the subject of liberty, with introductory and closing remarks
    • They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety, deserve neither liberty or safety...
    • ...
    • Where liberty dwells, there is my country.
    • ...
    • Without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom; and no such thing as public liberty, without freedom of speech.
    • ...
    • When the people find that they can vote themselves money, that will herald the end of the republic
    • Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote.
    • ...
    • Only a virtuous people are capable of freedom. As nations become more corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.
    Related Topic: Benjamin Franklin
    Benjamin Constant, Eloquent Defender of Freedom, by David Boaz, 25 Oct 2017
    Tribute to Constant, written on the 250th anniversary of his birth, with quotes from his speech "The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with That of the Moderns"
    Constant began his speech this way: "First ask yourselves, Gentlemen, what an Englishman, a Frenchman, and a citizen of the United States of America understand today by the word 'liberty.' For each of them it is the right to be subjected only to the laws, and to be neither arrested, detained, put to death or maltreated in any way by the arbitrary will of one or more individuals. It is the right of everyone to express their opinion, choose a profession and practice it, to dispose of property, and even to abuse it; to come and go without permission, and without having to account for their motives or undertakings ..."
    Related Topics: Benjamin Constant, Government
    Bentham, Jeremy (1748-1832), by T. Patrick Burke, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    Liberty, for Bentham, if properly understood, also is a fiction, that is, an unobservable abstract concept. Liberty is simply the absence of external constraint ... In addition to economic freedom, Bentham especially espoused the cause of intellectual freedom and freedom of speech. Because individuals are usually the best judges of what is good for them, and because a regime of liberty provides the individual with the greatest freedom to follow his own goals, there is a presumption in favor of it, and the burden of justification is on those who would make exceptions.
    Bourgeois Virtues?, by Deirdre McCloskey, Cato Policy Report, May 2006
    Offers an apologia (formal defense) of capitalism, in particular of the phrase "bourgeois virtues" as being neither a contradiction in terms nor a lie
    [W]e should emphasize ... the ethical and political effects of enrichment. The combination of longer and richer lives since 1800 is one reason that liberty has spread. There are by now many more adults living long enough lives sufficiently free from desperation to have some political interests. The theory that economic desperation leads to good revolution is, of course, mistaken, or else our freedoms would have emerged from the serfs of Russia or the peasants of China, not from the bourgeoisie of northwestern Europe, as they did in fact. Material wealth can yield political or artistic wealth.
    Conscience on the Battlefield, by Leonard E. Read, 1981
    Pamphlet written in 1951, during the Korean War, revised edition in 1981; Read recalls the 1918 incident when the troopship he was on was sunk by a German submarine and wonders about his thoughts if he were dying (in 1951) on a Korean battlefield
    The belief in coercion is an idea just as much as the belief in freedom is an idea ... What you are saying is ... that coercion, the essence of the dictator idea, produces better results than man in free action ... You are saying that wisdom is generated by the mere act of giving some person or persons a monopoly of coercion. If this be true, why do you not accept the Russian arrangement and be done with it? ... I thought you were fighting for freedom. Isn't it possible that the way to advance freedom is to behave like free men rather than like regimented men?
    Constant, Benjamin (1767-1830), by David M. Hart, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    It was [at Coppet, Switzerland] that Constant wrote ... his scathing attack on Napoleon's militarism and political tyranny, "The Spirit of Conquest and Usurpation and Their Relation to European Civilization" (1814). In that essay, Constant made two important distinctions, one between ancient and modern notions of liberty and the other between ancient military society and modern commercial society. With regard to liberty, Constant argued that in ancient societies liberty was largely seen as political participation, whereas in modern societies liberty was seen as a private sphere protected from intrusion by the state.
    Democracy Versus Liberty, by James Bovard, The Freeman, Aug 2006
    Discusses the dangers of equating liberty with "self-government" as majority rule
    Americans quickly recognized that liberty meant lack of coercion—especially lack of government coercion. "The Restraint of Government is the True Liberty and Freedom of the People" was a popular motto of the late 1700s. John Phillip Reid, in his seminal work, The Concept of Liberty in the Age of the American Revolution, observed that liberty in the eighteenth century was "largely thought of as freedom from arbitrary government ... The less a law restrained the citizen, and the more it restrained government, the better the law." This concept of freedom continued into the early part of the twentieth century.
    The Foundation for Economic Education: Success or Failure?, by Benjamin A. Rogge, Can Capitalism Survive?, 1979
    Adapted from remarks at FEE's 25th anniversary celebration in 1971; chapter 3 of part IX of Can Capitalism Survive?; also reprinted in The Freeman, May 1996
    Here are some typical statements from [Leonard Read]:
    ... The freedom idea is in fact a recent, idealistic, elevated acquisition of the human mind. Not being rooted in tradition and having little in the way of second-nature behaviors working for its security, it lacks stability; it is easily lost; freedom concepts are fragile, wonderful ideas, few of which we've yet embraced by second nature within our relatively unconditioned consciousness.
    Freedom will always be insecure; it will forever be touch-and-go. Even eternal vigilance and devoted effort can do no more than to set the trend aright ...
    Frederic Bastiat, Ingenious Champion for Liberty and Peace, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jun 1997
    Biographical essay of Frédéric Bastiat, covering those who influenced him as well as those influenced by him, his writings (including correspondence with his friend Coudroy), his roles in the French Constituent and Legistative Assemblies and his legacy
    Bastiat recognized that revolutionary violence occurred not because there was too much freedom but because there wasn't enough. "Can we imagine citizens, otherwise completely free," he wrote to Félix Coudroy, "moving to overthrow their government when its activity is limited to satisfying the most vital, the most keenly felt of all social wants, the need for justice? We have tried so many things; when shall we try the simplest of all: freedom?"
    Freedom vs. Liberty, by Joseph R. Stromberg, 10 Jul 2001
    Delves into the etymology and semantics of the English words "freedom" and "liberty"
    I begin on the ground of etymology: "Liberty" derives from Latin libertas, from liber, "free." ... English got "liberty" as Norman-French liberté [from] Latin libertas, an abstract noun deriving from liber, which also gives us "liberal," "liberate," and other words ... It remained for the liberal thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries to theorize a generalized notion of liberty ... "freedom" seems a bit more world-bound or concrete than "liberty." The latter conjures up the abstract public liberty in relation to the state ... Freedom might well be the very "thing" it is most important not to lose.
    Related Topics: Ama-gi, Society, J. R. R. Tolkien
    Garet Garrett Revived, by Bruce Ramsey, 26 Mar 2002
    Discusses Garrett's political writings and announces a new collection of his Saturday Evening Post articles about the New Deal, edited by Ramsey
    [Garrett] argued for liberty in at least three ways. First, liberty was American. Liberty was what made us different from Europeans. It was not just capitalism. Lots of countries had that. Americans had a unique, freewheeling, exuberant subspecies of it: Capitalism with liberty. Such was was our identity ... The second reason [he] was for liberty is that liberty made individual Americans strong ... The third reason Garrett was for liberty is that it made the nation strong. One of the ways it did that was by providing elbow room for remarkable people to do remarkable things. To Garrett, this was personalized by Henry Ford.
    Give Me Liberty [PDF], by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
    Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
    When I asked myself, "Am I truly free?" I began slowly to understand the nature of man and man's situation on this planet. I understood at last that every human being is free; that I am endowed by the Creator with inalienable liberty as I am endowed with life; that my freedom is inseparable from my life, since freedom is the individual's self-controlling nature. My freedom is my control of my own life-energy, for the uses of which I, alone, am therefore responsible ... I hold the truth to be self-evident, that all men are endowed ... with individual self-control and responsibility ...
    Harper, Floyd Arthur "Baldy" (1905-1973), by Will Wilkinson, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Encyclopedic biographical essay of F. A. "Baldy" Harper
    The most original aspect of [Liberty: A Path to Its Recovery] was his emphasis on then‐​current empirical biological science to establish the biological basis of human individuality. Harper argued that individual variations in talent, together with the distinctively human "capacity for independent thought and action," were the source of all economic and cultural progress. Liberty, which exists "when a person is free to do whatever he desires, according to his wisdom and conscience," sustained the conditions under which diverse individual types could flourish and the progress of civilization could be realized.
    The History of Freedom in Antiquity, by John Dalberg-Acton, 26 Feb 1877
    Surveys the ancient history of liberty, both from the side of rulers (despots, Solon, Pericles, Roman Republic and Empire) and philosophers (Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics), and the later influence of Christianity
    Liberty, next to religion has been the motive of good deeds and the common pretext of crime, from the sowing of the seed at Athens ... In every age [liberty's] progress has been beset by its natural enemies, by ignorance and superstition, by lust of conquest and by love of ease, by the strong man's craving for power, and the poor man's craving for food ... By liberty I mean the assurance that every man shall be protected in doing what he believes his duty, against the influence of authority and majorities, custom and opinion ... Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end.
    Related Topics: Democracy, Government, The State
    H. L. Mencken, America's Wittiest Defender of Liberty, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Sep 1995
    Biographical essay, highlighting Mencken's tenure at the Baltimore Sun, the books he authored, the founding and his work at the American Mercury monthly and his brief relationship with Sara Haardt
    "I believe that liberty is the only genuinely valuable thing that men have invented," [Mencken] wrote, "at least in the field of government ... that it is better to be free than to be not free, even when the former is dangerous and the latter safe. I believe that the finest qualities of man can flourish only in free air—that progress made under the shadow of the policeman's club is false progress ... that any man who takes the liberty of another into his keeping is bound to become a tyrant, and that any man who yields up his liberty, in however slight the measure, is bound to become a slave."
    How Much Do You Know About Liberty? (a quiz), The Freeman, Jun 1996
    A 20-question quiz (with answers) on various topics related to liberty in the history of the United States
    What method of resolving disputes did trial by jury replace? ... What bulwark of American liberty do we owe to the Antifederalists? ... How many slaves were liberated by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation? ... After the Civil War, how did the federal and state governments oppress black people? ... When and why did organized crime get started in the United States? ... What effect did the New Deal have on the Great Depression? ... Which three twentieth-century presidents promised to keep America out of war—but maneuvered in? ... About how much do government regulations cost Americans each year ...?
    How To Get Action, by Leonard Read, Ideas on Liberty, May 1955
    First published in the quarterly Ideas on Liberty; reprinted in the 1958 collection Essays on Liberty, Vol. III and in The Freeman Aug 1998; argues the best form of action is working on self-improvement
    Is there one book or one article written by anyone at any time that can be designated as the final word on liberty? Perhaps the best that can be said is that the finest minds of all time have been in pursuit ... and that now and then a tiny ray of new light has been thrown on what theretofore was darkness and lack of understanding ... The reason for this difficulty ... is that liberty, like truth, is an object of infinite pursuit, a quest without end, ever! The understanding of liberty requires intellectual ventures into the areas of the unknown or, more likely, into the areas that have become unknown or that majorities have declared taboo.
    How To Sell Liberty, by Jarret Wollstein, Jun 1998
    Discusses eight principles of effective salesmanship and how to apply them to market liberty
    Although liberty is beneficial to nearly everyone, because of political biases ... and other factors, you are not going to be able to sell everyone ... [W]hen you are selling liberty, you need to talk about how liberty will benefit your audience. Liberty is one product that benefits every honest person, so it can be sold to nearly everyone ... Explain that liberty and the free market are intelligent compassion–compassion that really works. Only by creating a society in which individual liberty is strongly protected, will the poor be free from abuse and exploitation by the police, big corporations and other powerful groups.
    Related Topics: Government, Libertarianism
    The Idea of Liberty is Western, by Ludwig von Mises, American Affairs, Oct 1950
    Argues that the "idea of liberty is and has always been peculiar to the West", beginning in ancient Greece and moving westward to Europe and America, and discusses "liberty" as viewed by Harold Laski, contrasting life under Stalin with Italy under fascism
    The history of civilization is the record of a ceaseless struggle for liberty ... The aim ... is to keep in bounds the armed defenders of peace, the governors and their constables. Freedom always means: freedom from arbitrary action on the part of the police power. The idea of liberty ... has always been peculiar to the West. What separates East and West is first of all the fact that the peoples of the East never conceived the idea of liberty. The imperishable glory of the ancient Greeks was that they were the first to grasp the meaning and significance of institutions warranting liberty.
    The Indivisibility of Liberty, by Mary Ruwart, 23 Apr 2008
    Discusses how advocating that others be deprived of some liberties results in negative repercussions on our own liberties
    Americans want liberty for themselves, but they want something very different for others. This is why it has been a struggle to keep liberty as the foundation of our society. Liberty requires respect for the personal choices that others make. In the long run, our liberties cannot be maintained if we violate the liberties of others. In trying to control others, we will eventually find ourselves controlled. Taking our neighbors' liberties results in the loss of our own ... Liberty is indivisible. It's the one thing we can't have unless we are willing to give it others.
    Related Topics: War on Drugs, Libertarianism
    In Pursuit of Liberty, by Jarret Wollstein, May 1997
    Primer on liberty concepts, including voluntary vs. coercive associations, individual rights, government and possible future improvements in the status quo
    Liberty is the freedom to act as you please so long as you don't coerce others ... We need liberty to think, to create, and to fulfill our individual and unique potential. Liberty is as much a requirement of our psychological nature as food and air are requirements of our biological nature. When liberty is denied, economies stagnate, cultures deteriorate, science declines, living standards fall, and the human spirit languishes. Liberty is essential for any decent and humane society. Liberty is such a compelling and important value that even brutal dictatorships claim to support it.
    Interview with Jim Bovard, by James Bovard, Sunni Maravillosa, Apr 2006
    Extensive dialogue (13 web pages), from Jim's first paid writing to an upcoming book, the publishing industry, the Future of Freedom Foundation, his books, radio hosts and much more
    I suspect some libertarians greatly overestimate how attractive liberty is to today's Americans. How many young people and college students would happily permit the government to monitor all their e-mail in return for unlimited free music downloads? How many McDonald's gift certificates would it take to sway a person to pledge never to publicly criticize the president? How many people would happily surrender most of their constitutional rights in return for a president's promise that he will thereby make them safe? Many Americans are far more interested in being cared for than being left alone.
    James Buchanan's Subjectivist Economics, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Apr 2013
    Reviews Buchanan's writings in What Should Economists Do? (1979), a collection of several of his essays
    Buchanan rejected talk of "national goals" and other collectivist notions, but he went beyond others who do the same:
    Traditionally, many of us ... remark that "only individuals can have goals." But ... not even individuals have well-defined and well-articulated objectives ... Man wants liberty to become the man he wants to become. He does so precisely because he does not know what man he will want to become in time. Let us remove once and for all the instrumental defense of liberty, the only one that can possibly be derived directly from orthodox economic analysis ...
    Jefferson on American Liberty, by Gary M. Galles, Mises Daily, 4 Jul 2002
    List of Thomas Jefferson quotations on the subjects of liberty, rights and government
    Our liberty is to be limited only by others' equal liberty.
    "... rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our own will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law,' because law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the right of an individual." ...
    Our liberty is not to be undermined by government intervention or redistribution. ...
    "The policy of the American government is to leave their citizens free, neither restraining nor aiding them in their pursuits."
    John Stuart Mill and the Three Dangers to Liberty, by Richard Ebeling, Freedom Daily, Jun 2001
    Evaluates John Stuart Mills arguments in his essay "On Liberty", in particular the three forms of tyranny posited by Mill and an element (private property) not emphasized by his analysis
    Mill ... defended ... liberty of action as well. To make men conform to a uniformity in their conduct would prevent that which is an inherent hallmark of each of us as a human being: our individuality ... [A] weak link in Mill's argument is the vagueness ... in how he defines the arena within which the individual may claim protection from political infringements ... But in the broadest sense, Mill defines the range of a person's right to unrestrained liberty over his own choices as extending to that point at which his actions would infringe upon and violate the equal rights of other people to their freedom.
    Kennedy's Libertarian Revolution: Lawrence's reach, by Randy Barnett, National Review Online, 10 Jul 2003
    Comments on the Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas which deemed sodomy laws to be unconstitutional and in particular on Justice Anthony Kennedy's majority opinion
    Contrary to what has been reported repeatedly in the press, the Court in Lawrence did not protect a "right of privacy." Rather, it protected "liberty"—and without showing that the particular liberty in question is somehow "fundamental." ... Liberty, not privacy, pervades [Kennedy's] opinion like none other, beginning with the very first paragraph ... Liberty is—and has always been—the properly defined exercise of freedom that does not violate the rights of others. Your right to liberty is not violated by restrictions on your freedom to rape and murder, because you have no such right in the first place.
    Knight, Frank H. (1885-1972), by Richard Boyd, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    Even if we could agree on what should be done for the betterment of society, what he characterized as the insurmountable value problem, social reforms, Knight maintained, always come at the cost of some measure of human freedom, clearly a value worthy of respect ... rather than defending freedom for its anticipated benefits, whether economic or social, Knight's preference for limited government was based on a profound skepticism about the frailties of human nature and the "sickness of liberal society." He defended freedom for its own sake with no illusions about the uses to which flawed human beings might choose to put their liberty.
    Related Topics: Frank Knight, Ethics
    Libertarianism and Legal Paternalism [PDF], by John Hospers, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1980
    Discusses laws "designed to protect people from themselves" arguing that in general such laws are illegitimate
    [John Stuart] Mill ... held, for example, that a contract by which a person agrees to sell himself into perpetual slavery should be null and void ... But why, if a person signs such a contract, should anyone interfere with it? "The reason for not interfering ... with a person's voluntary acts," wrote Mill in On Liberty, "is consideration for his liberty ... By selling himself for a slave, he abdicates his liberty ... He therefore defeats, in his own case, the very purpose which is the justification of allowing him to dispose of himself ... It is not freedom to be allowed to alienate his freedom."
    Libertarianism Is the Key to Our Future, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Freedom Daily, Jul 2006
    Examines three reasons—freedom, morality and pragmatism—that suggest that Americans will eventually return to their libertarian heritage
    Almost everyone prizes the concept of freedom. Yet relatively few people in history have realized it ... The big problem that Americans face is embodied in the words of the great German thinker Johann Goethe: "None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free." Americans honestly believe that, unlike most people throughout history, they are living lives of freedom. They are not aware that they are actually living lives of unreality and self-deception. That's not to say that Americans don't value freedom. On the contrary, it is among their highest values.
    Liberty Defined, by F. A. Harper, 4 Sep 1957
    Speech to the Mont Pelerin Society; Harper first offers his definition of liberty, then explores "adulterated" definitions, its relation to morals, moral law and basic humans rights, ending with his hope for the cause of liberty
    [I]s the meaning of liberty so clear and simple? ... We may assume that for an eon mankind has battled for his liberty, for instance, without having any deep sense of what liberty really is, just as he battled for his existence ... Liberty stems from liber, which means to be free ... Liberty is the absence of coercion of a human being by any other human being; it is a condition where the person may do whatever he desires, according to his wisdom and conscience. This means to have liberty one must be free without qualification or modification, so far as his social relationships are concerned.
    Liberty in the Ancient World, by Roderick T. Long, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Surveys the ancient civilizations in Sumeria, Hebrew Palestine, China, Greece and the Roman Republic and Empire, and their thoughts and practices about liberty
    The first known use of a word meaning "liberty" (amagi) occurs on a 24th-century B.C. clay tablet from the Sumerian city-state of Lagash. According to the cuneiform document, the people of Lagash had long been languishing under oppressive bureaucrats and rapacious tax collectors when a reformer named Urukagina became king, apparently by coup, and "established liberty." Urukagina's regime was short-lived, however, because Lagash was conquered by a neighboring state less than a decade later. The amagi symbol enjoys some popularity among libertarians today.
    Related Topics: China, Benjamin Constant, Greece, India
    Liberty or Empire?, by Patrick Henry, 5 Jun 1788
    Excerpt of speech to the Virginia Ratifying Convention; criticizes several clauses of the proposed Constitution and warns about the possibility of a U.S. President becoming even worse than a king
    When the American spirit was in its youth, the language of America was different; liberty, sir, was then the primary object. We are descended from a people whose government was founded on liberty; our glorious forefathers of Great Britain made liberty the foundation of everything. That country is become a great, mighty, and splendid nation; not because their government is strong and energetic, but, sir, because liberty is its direct end and foundation. We drew the spirit of liberty from our British ancestors; by that spirit we have triumphed over every difficulty.
    The life and times of F.A. Hayek, who explained why political liberty is impossible without economic liberty, by Jim Powell, 2000
    Lengthy biographical essay, with extensive quotes; alternate version of "The Worst on Top" chapter of The Triumph of Liberty (2000)
    Because there are so many things human beings don't know, [Hayek] maintained it's essential that we be free to pursue the truth. He affirmed that "the chief reason why we should be held wholly responsible for our decisions is that this will direct our attention to those causes of events that depend on our actions." He stressed that the most important benefits come from the unforeseen ways people use their liberty ... How to protect liberty? Each individual must have a sphere where he or she can be free without interference from others, ... as long ... as they don't interfere with anybody else.
    Locke, John (1632-1704), by Eric Mack, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical and bibliographical essay
    Locke argued that the facts ... support the conclusion that each of us has a right to dispose of ourselves as we judge best. Each of us possesses a right against others' disposing of us to advance their own purposes. Because we are all natural moral equals, any individual who rationally claims certain rights for himself must acknowledge that all other individuals have the same rights. Because what we each rationally claim against others is a right to freedom (i.e., a right to depose of our lives and liberty as we see fit), we each must grant that all other individuals have a like claim ...
    Lord Acton on Liberty and Government, by Gary M. Galles, Mises Daily, 11 Nov 2002
    Lamenting that most people only know Lord Acton's most famous quote, lists many of his other memorable writings on liberty, government and related subjects
    ... Liberty is the prevention of control by others. This requires self-control...
    Liberty alone demands, for its realization, the limitation of the public authority, for liberty is the only object which benefits all alike, and provokes no sincere opposition
    Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end. It is not for the sake of a good public administration that it is required, but for the security in the pursuit of the highest objects of civil society, and of private life.
    Liberty is not the power of doing what we like, but the right of being able to do what we ought ...
    Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873), by Aeon Skoble, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    Mill argued for a specific set of liberties being especially crucial to the development of the good: liberty of conscience, including freedom of thought and expression, and of the press; liberty of tastes and pursuits, including lifestyle and career choice ...; and liberty to associate with and unite with others for any purpose that does not violate the rights of others. These liberties are necessary for the discovery of truth and for the development of culture. To deny these liberties not only inhibits our humanity, but is most likely to lead to erroneous doctrines in morals, religion, and science ...
    Murray N. Rothbard: Mr. Libertarian, by Wendy McElroy, 6 Jul 2000
    A tribute to Rothbard as a "system builder," an integrator of multiple disciplines into a "philosophy of freedom"; examines several of Rothbard's essays and books
    In its most blatant form, the [Liberty v. Power] struggle manifests itself as war between the peaceful, productive individual and the intrusive State that usurps those products ... Rothbard sought to create an interdisciplinary system of thought that used the struggle between Liberty and Power as its integrating theme. He explained, "Strands and remnants of libertarian doctrines are, indeed, all around us. ... But only libertarianism takes these strands and remnants and integrates them into a ... consistent system." Without such a systematic world view, he believed Liberty could not succeed.
    On the Origin and Character of Rights, by William Blackstone, The Freeman, Mar 1981
    Selection extracted from Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765), Book I, Chapter I, "Of the absolute Rights of Individuals"
    The absolute rights of man, considered as a free agent, ... are usually summed up in one general appellation and denominated the natural liberty of mankind. This natural liberty consists properly in a power of acting as one thinks fit, without any restraint or control, unless by the law of nature ... But every man, when he enters into society, gives up a part of his natural liberty ... Political therefore, or civil, liberty, which is that of a member of society, is no other than natural liberty so far restrained by human laws (and no farther) as is necessary and expedient for the general advantage of the publick.
    Related Topics: Law, Rights
    Personal 'Freedom': Review of Harry Browne's How I Found Freedom In An Unfree World [PDF], by Roy Childs, The Libertarian Forum, Apr 1973
    While admitting that the book has many valuable insights, Childs chastises Browne on his definition of freedom and his views on morality and natural rights
    [Browne's] concept of freedom is unforgivable: "freedom is the opportunity to live your life as you want to live it." ... Browne takes three steps backwards from the semantic advances of the key libertarian philosophers, notably Rand and Rothbard, and obscures a vitally important issue: the distinction between freedom and ability or power. By defining freedom in terms of "opportunity," Browne semantically enslaves all those who are struggling to get what they want, but who have not yet attained it, for it is precisely the concrete opportunity to get what they want that they are lacking. Unhappy? Perhaps. But unfree? Not true.
    The Political Thought of Étienne de La Boétie, by Murray N. Rothbard, 1975
    Introduction to The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude (Free Life Editions, 1975), translated by Harry Kurz; summarizes the key insights of La Boétie's work
    Reason is our guide to the facts and laws of nature and to humanity's proper path ... And reason, La Boétie adds, teaches us the justice of equal liberty for all ... Therefore, "there can be no further doubt that we are all naturally free," and hence it cannot be asserted that "nature has placed some of us in slavery." Even animals, he points out, display a natural instinct to be free. But then, what in the world "has so denatured man that he, the only creature really born to be free, lacks the memory of his original condition and the desire to return to it?"
    The Primacy of Freedom, by Brian Summers, The Freeman, Feb 1988
    One of over 20 essays in the anthology Ideas on Liberty: Essays in Honor of Paul L. Poirot (1987), discussing why the freedom philosophy and economic and moral education are important
    Why is liberty so important that we should devote our efforts toward it when there are so many other worthy causes which cry for our attention and support? One way to answer is to point out that the freedom philosophy, according to all available evidence, is correct. Both rational thought and historical study demonstrate that the free market, private property, limited government system works—it delivers higher living standards than any alternate system ... But the freedom philosophy is concerned with more than the truth ... The freedom philosophy is important because people are important.
    Property and Force: A Reply to Matt Bruenig, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 22 Nov 2013
    Responds to blogger Bruenig's criticism of the essay "One Moral Standard for All"; with quotes or examples from Roderick Long, Murray Rothbard, Gary Chartier, David Hume and Karl Hess
    Of course, libertarians don't define freedom in merely physical terms ... Libertarians don't talk about freedom in a vacuum, focusing on one isolated person's ability to move anyway he chooses. Rather, they advocate the freedom of all persons in society. If everyone is to be free, freedoms cannot conflict; they must be compossible. Smith's freedom cannot morally include the freedom to enter Jones's house uninvited, or the freedom to thrust his fist against Jones's head. It doesn't much matter if you call these prohibitions limitations on freedom or exclusions from the concept freedom.
    Reasoning on the Nature of Things, by Clarence B. Carson, The Freeman, Feb 1982
    Discusses how natural law doctrines were repudiated by utilitarians, why natural rights are important from an economic viewpoint, how the rights to life, liberty and property can be construed and what the author understands as the "social contract"
    The right to liberty is most directly the right not to be restrained or imprisoned. To put it affirmatively, it is the right to go and come at will, without let or hindrance. In practice, it means the right to do this unless he must be restrained for some good reason, duly attested and proved. In its extended sense, the right to liberty is the right to use one's own faculties as one wills for his own ends ... Only the individual is situated so as to use his faculties for constructive purposes ... Only he can direct his faculties to their highest and best use.
    Religion and Freedom, by Robert Sirico, Freedom Daily, Dec 1993
    Examines the premise that the state is justified as a means to promote or even coerce morality, the role of attaining liberty and the historical roots of "church and state"
    And frequently, when people speak of liberty, they seem to mean a freedom from all law — antinomianism ... Liberty, once obtained, is itself a rather meager concept ... the value of which has been far too inflated. Of course, when people do not have liberty, it is the one thing they most desperately seek and are often willing to die to achieve. This is the case because it is something without which civil society could not be maintained ... liberty is the only context within which these questions of the higher order can be addressed; it is the means toward another and higher end, but must not be confused with the end itself.
    Related Topics: Ethics, Freedom of Religion, Rights
    The Road Ahead, by John T. Flynn, The Freeman, Oct 1995
    Excerpted from Forgotten Lessons: Selected Essays of John T. Flynn (1995); original article published in the Feb 1950 Reader's Digest as a condensation of Flynn's 1949 book
    We must put human freedom as the first of our demands. There can be no security in a nation without freedom. Let us work to make our country a more bountiful home for all to live in, but the first and indispensable test of every plan must be whether it will impair our freedom. A better life for all, yes—but not at the expense of our liberties ... [W]e must go back ... to our Declaration of Independence, to our history and to the example set by our national fathers. We must begin now to dismantle the tyrant State in America and to build up once again the energies of a free people.
    Related Topics: Capitalism, Socialism
    Robert A. Heinlein's Soaring Spirit of Liberty, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jul 1997
    Biographical essay, including multiple quotes from fellow authors and significant excerpts from Heinlein's novels and stories
    Narrator John Lyle tells how he developed a philosophy of freedom. "I began to sense faintly that secrecy is the keystone of all tyranny ... When any government ... undertakes to say to its subjects, 'This you may not read, this you must not see, this you are forbidden to know,' the end result is tyranny and oppression ... Mighty little force is needed to control a man whose mind has been hoodwinked; contrariwise, no amount of force can control a free man, a man whose mind is free. No, not the rack, not fission bombs, not anything—you can't conquer a free man; the most you can do is kill him."
    Robert Nozick and the Value of Liberty, by Aaron Ross Powell, 21 Jun 2011
    Responds to Stephen Metcalf's essay "The Liberty Scam", published on the previous day
    [L]ibertarians don't believe that liberty is the primary value, we believe that liberty is the primary political value ... The beauty of liberty is that it allows each of us to pursue our own ends and strive for whatever we value. The curse of liberty is that our striving takes place among a great many fellow strivers, many of who are headed in directions we find elitist or prole, dangerous or dull, distasteful or uninspired. The difference between Nozick's vision and Metcalf's is that Nozick embraces that wonderful chaos, provided it happens within a framework of respected rights.
    Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, May 1996
    Triple biographical essay on the women who in 1943 published The Discovery of Freedom, The God of the Machine and The Fountainhead
    In 1942, an editor of John Day Company asked Lane to write a book about liberty ... Her book, The Discovery of Freedom, Man's Struggle Against Authority, was published January 1943 ... Lane chronicled the epic 6,000-year struggle of ordinary people, who defy rulers to raise families, produce food, build industries, engage in trade, and in countless ways improve human life. She was lyrical about the American Revolution, which helped secure liberty and unleashed phenomenal energy for human progress ... She ridiculed claims that bureaucrats could do better for individuals than they could do for themselves.
    So What If Freedom Isn't Free?, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 31 May 2013
    Examines the assertion "Freedom isn't free" from the viewpoint of free will, negative or positive rights, resource scarcity and common usage
    Let's start by pointing out that freedom, in the sense of the inborn capacity to act as persons rather than as robots, is free. It is part of our nature as rational beings. We act purposively—which is to say we select ends ... and then we search for appropriate means to achieve those ends ... Free in the social, or political, sense is what you are when others abstain from interfering with your activities. This is what is meant by "negative" freedom or rights ... Protecting one's (negative) social freedom may require the use of scarce resources, and in that sense freedom indeed is not free.
    UpdTo Defeat the Assault on Liberty, Our Appeals Must Be Moral, by Jim Powell, 13 May 2013
    Argues, by providing several historical examples, that "compelling moral appeals for liberty" are needed to confront various current problems such as government spending and debt, higher taxes and disregard of constitutional limits on executive power
    American liberty is under assault now more than at any time since the 1930s, because of runaway spending, soaring debt, ever higher taxes, proliferating regulations, implementation of Obamacare and the president's disregard for constitutional limits on his power ... In recent times, Ronald Reagan stood out as a rare leader who could express moral appeals for liberty. He said, for instance, "Only when the human spirit is allowed to invent and create, only when individuals have a personal stake in their success—only then can societies remain dynamic, prosperous and free."
    The Top 25 Liberty Songs, by Bill Winter, Libertarian Party News, Aug 2001
    List of 25 "Liberty's Best Songs" chosen from over 200 suggestions, each with a short summary and highlighted lyrics, and a supplementary list of 25 runners-up
    [S]ongs that celebrate human freedom, civil liberties, resistance to tyranny, or just plain old all-American "I did it my way" individualism
    • Sunshine
    • My Life
    • 911 is a joke
    • Get Up, Stand Up
    • The Band Played Waltzing Matilda
    • Liberty
    • Something for Nothing
    • 1%
    • Taxman
    • Copperhead Road
    • America
    • The Plan
    • People Want to Be Free
    • I Want To Be Free (That's the Truth)
    • Capitalism
    • My Way
    • Inside Four Walls
    • The Coalition to Ban Coalitions
    • Freedom of Speech
    • God Bless The USA
    • Monster / Suicide / America
    • Legalize It
    • Rather Die Than Be Your Slave
    • Government Cheese
    • The Trees
    Two-dimensional libertarianism, by Anthony Gregory, Rational Review, 30 Sep 2004
    Questions the usefulness of the two-dimensional Nolan Chart and the World's Smallest Political Quiz and advocates instead a one-dimensional liberty vs. power spectrum
    [I]t makes no sense to strongly believe in freedom on some issues, but strongly favor and trust state power on others. This brings us back to the idea that it really is a one-dimensional model—Liberty on one end, power on the other. And I don't think Left and Right have anything to do with it ... If a one-dimensional line with Liberty vs. Power doesn't cover all the complexities, we need more than two dimensions ... But in the end, it's liberty vs. power, and we should be three-dimensional libertarians on the proper side of this one-dimensional, but more precise, spectrum.
    The War the Government Cannot Win, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., 1 May 2007
    Discusses how government cannnot win the war on terror because economic law is more powerful than the state; talk given at the Wisconsin Forum in Milwaukee
    I'm often asked what an average person can do to stop the madness and further liberty ... When you are asked what you would like the government to do for you, we need to be prepared to reply: nothing ... [W]e can still be good citizens ... and contributors to society in a million different ways. This is far more important to the future of liberty than anything else we do. We must regain our confidence in our capacity for self-governance ... Even if the public sector cannot and will not prepare for a future of liberty, we can. Let us look for and work toward the triumph of liberty ...
    We Need an Angel Like Clarence, by Lew Rockwell, Mises Daily, 28 Dec 2006
    Attempts to counter the despair felt by some in the freedom movement by examining, by example, the "unseen" benefits of libertarian activism over the past century
    What might have been the fate of liberty if no one had cared about it in the last 100 years? That is an important way to look at this issue, one that accords with Frederic Bastiat's emphasis on looking not only at the seen but also at the unseen ... [W]hat we need to take into account are the unseen benefits of activism. Had the advocates of liberty never spoken up, never written books, never taught in the classroom, never written editorials, and never advanced their views in any public or private forum, would the cause of liberty have been better off or the same? No way.
    Why Are We Afraid To Be Free?, by Butler Shaffer, 27 Nov 2001
    Examines the question of how to bring about freedom in individuals' lives, discussing how government influences people to be in conflicted states and how one must look within oneself and act accordingly to begin to be "free"
    Let me begin by distinguishing the concepts "freedom" and "liberty." Freedom is a state of mind that is not in conflict or contradiction, a mind that ... is integrated into a consistent whole ... Liberty describes a social system in which free men and women live and cooperate with one another. Because their minds are free of conflict, their relationships with others tend to be peaceful ... If you wish ... to discover the life-sustaining freedom that inheres within you, you need do no more than confront ... the means by which you have cooperated in your own psychological crippling.
    Why the Republicans Are Doomed, by Lew Rockwell, 21 Feb 2007
    Discusses Republican behavior at both the presidential and grassroots level, arguing that they take their societal view from Hobbes
    Up with Hobbes, down with Locke: that is [the Republicans] implied creed. Liberty is fine but order, ORDER, is much more important, and order comes from the state. They can't even fathom the truth that liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of order ... But these days we see all around us how liberty generates order and how this order is self-sustaining ... We see the glorious world of the web. We benefit daily, hourly, minute-by-minute, from an order that is not imposed from without but rather generated from within, by that remarkable capacity we have for pursuing self-interest while benefiting the whole.
    Winning the Battle for Freedom and Prosperity, by John Mackey, Liberty, Jun 2006
    Updated from speech given at FreedomFest 2004; after a brief background on himself, Mackey criticizes the freedom movement from a marketing and branding perspective and suggests a different approach by de-emphasizing some issues and prioritizing others
    The freedom movement must embrace the ideals of love, caring, and compassion, and return these words to their true meanings. Love, caring, and compassion do not equate to guilt, and they do not mean pandering to ... victims ... Spreading freedom ... is the most loving, caring, and compassionate thing we can do for people. True freedom allows people to create prosperity and gives them the opportunity to move up Maslow's hierarchy of needs towards self-actualization. True freedom gives us the opportunity to take social responsibility and to work towards making the world a better place.


    Interview with Karl Hess, by Karl Hess, A. Lin Neumann, Reason, May 1982
    Topics discussed include the Republican Party, National Review, AEI, Goldwater, Rothbard, anarchism, the Vietnam War, Carter and Reagan, fascism, urban enterprise zones, the environment, and authoritarianism vs. freedom
    REASON: If you could get together today with some of your friends from National Review, what would you say to them?
    HESS: Well, I'd say very little except to make the plaintive point that they're casting their lot with authoritarianism and that, although I can understand that ..., I suggest that they would be happier if they cast their lot on the side of freedom. That's all. It seems to me that in the long run the greatest thing you can say about freedom is that you feel better when you're free. It's a more enjoyable state of life than to be either a slave or a master.


    The Human Freedom Index 2023: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil, and Economic Freedom [PDF], by Ian Vásquez, Dec 2023
    2023 report of the Human Freedom Index, edited by Ian Vásquez et al.
    The Human Freedom Index (HFI) ... is the most comprehensive freedom index so far created for a globally meaningful set of countries and jurisdictions ... The HFI covers 165 jurisdictions for 2019, the most recent year for which sufficient data are available ... The countries that took the top 10 places, in order, were Switzerland, New Zealand, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, Canada and Finland (tied at 6), Australia, Sweden, and Luxembourg. Selected jurisdictions rank as follows: United Kingdom (14), Germany, Japan, and the United States (tied at 15),Taiwan (19), Chile (28), Hong Kong (30), South Korea (31) ...


    The Art of Being Free: Politics versus the Everyman and Woman
        by Wendy McElroy, 2012
    Contents: Preface - The Theoretical Footing of Freedom - Applying Theory to the Issues - Principles Work through People - Getting There from Here - Conclusion
    The Constitution of Liberty
        by F. A. Hayek, 1960
    Partial contents: Part I: The Creative Powers of a Free Civilization - II: Freedom and the Law - Coercion and the State - The Safeguards of Individual Liberty - III: Freedom in the Welfare State - The Decline of Socialism and the Rise of the Welfare State
    The Discovery of Freedom: Man's Struggle Against Authority
        by Rose Wilder Lane, 1943
    Partial contents: One: The Old World - The Pagan Faith - Communism - The Living Authorities - The Planned Economies - War - Two: The Revolution - The First Attempt - The Second Attempt - The Feudal System - The English Liberties - The Third Attempt
    Escape From Leviathan: Liberty, Welfare, and Anarchy Reconciled, by Jan Clifford Lester, 21 Jun 2000
    Excerpts from each major section of the book available at Libertarian Alliance website; contents: Introduction - Rationality - Liberty - Welfare - Anarchy
    Related Topic: Anarchism
    For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, by Murray N. Rothbard, 1973
    Partial contents: The Libertarian Heritage - Property and Exchange - The State - The Problems - Involuntary Servitude - Personal Liberty - Education - Welfare and the Welfare State - The Public Sector - War and Foreign Policy - A Strategy for Liberty
    Liberty: A Path to Its Recovery [PDF], by F. A. Harper, Hans Sennholz (foreword), Foundation for Economic Education, 1949
    Partial contents: The Nature of Liberty - Forms of Liberty - Liberty and Charity - Government in a Liberal Society - Democracy and Liberty - Liberty and Peace - A Measure of Liberty - The Extent of Lost Liberty - Special Privilege - Recovering Liberty
    • ISBN 0910614954: Paperback, Foundation for Econ Education, 2nd edition, 1993
    Liberty Against Power: Essays by Roy A. Childs, Jr.
        by Roy Childs, Thomas Szasz (foreword), Joan Kennedy Taylor (editor), 1 Dec 1994
    19 essays on political philosophy, policy analysis and book and music reviews; topics include capitalism, objectivism, libertarianism, property rights, the draft and the war on drugs
    On Liberty, by John Stuart Mill, 1859
    Contents: I. Introductory - II. Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion - III. Of Individuality, as One of the Elements of Well-Being - IV. Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual - V. Applications
    The Passion for Liberty
        by Tibor Machan, Aug 2003
    Partial contents: Opposing Senses of Freedom - Why Capitalism Squares with Morality - Immigration Into a Free Society - Military Defense of the Free Society - Liberty: Economic Versus Moral Benefits - Reflections On the Right to Private Property
    Planning for Freedom: And Sixteen other Essays and Addresses
        by Ludwig von Mises, 1952
    Partial contents: Planning for Freedom - Middle-of-the-road Policy Leads to Socialism - Laissez Faire or Dictatorship - Stones into Bread, The Keynesian Miracle - Lord Keynes and Say's Law - Inflation and Price Control - Profit and Loss
    Speaking of Liberty
        by Lew Rockwell, Mises Institute, Dec 2003
    Partial contents: Economics: The Marvel That Is Capitalism - Why Austrian Economics Matters - War: Free Trade versus War - Ludwig von Mises: Mises and Liberty - Ideas: An American Classical Liberalism - The Sinful State - Interviews and Tributes
    Toward Liberty: The Idea That Is Changing the World
        by David Boaz (editor), Cato Institute, Apr 2002
    Partial contents: Ideas and Consequences - Economic Growth - The Welfare State - The Regulatory State - A World in Transition - Foreign Affairs - Trade and International Finance - Law and Liberty - Democracy and Culture


    A Conversation With Hayek and Buchanan, Part I, by James M. Buchanan, F. A. Hayek, 1978
    The Idea Channel, 52 minutes: "Nobel laureates Hayek and Buchanan engage in a spirited discussion of von Hayek's controversial work, 'Constitution of Liberty'"
    A Conversation With Hayek and Buchanan, Part II, by James M. Buchanan, F. A. Hayek, 1978
    The Idea Channel, 48 minutes: "Nobel laureates Hayek and Buchanan continue their discussion of von Hayek's controversial work, 'Constitution of Liberty'"

    The Philosophy of Liberty, 17 Jun 2007
    Based on the prologue to Ken Schoolland's The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible

    The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Liberty" as of 18 Jun 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.