Petroleum, natural gas, coal and other materials used to produce energy

A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion).

Articles

UpdReports of Peak Oil's Death Are Somewhat Premature, by Kevin Carson, 22 Jul 2013
Examines shale oil and tar sand oil vis-à-vis the state policies that allow extraction to be profitable
"Shale oil extraction simply isn't sustainable or self-financing. It requires enormous investor financing to get the wells producing. Returns per well quickly decline, so there's no way to recoup that investment from production. The average one-year production drop-off from existing wells is 38%. Wells more than a few years old have very little output, and most current output is from the most recently drilled wells. The so-called "shale boom" requires not only large-scale financing up-front, but continued drilling just to keep the operation going."
Related Topic: The State

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fuel" as of 29 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.