The science that studies the principles of valid reasoning and argument

Reference

Logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Logic, from Classical Greek ... logos, originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. However the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish good from bad arguments. Traditionally, logic is studied as a branch of philosophy. ..."

Articles

NewAristotle (382-322 BC) | Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, by Fred Miller, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"Aristotle's philosophical system consists of numerous specialized sciences. He holds that each science must be adapted to its own subject matter with distinctive problems, methods, and first principles. All the sciences presuppose a theory of logic, language, and knowledge, which Aristotle set forth in a set of treatises called the Organon. These common elements include a system of syllogistic logic that prevailed largely unchallenged until the 20th century. Aristotle formulated and defended the law of noncontradiction and the principle of identity ..."
Libertarian as Logician: The True Essence of Libertarianism, by Arnold Kling, 3 Dec 2012
Discusses the results of a study that showed self-identified libertarians tend to reason logically about moral issues rather than rely on heuristics
"Kahneman describes decision-making in terms of two systems. What he calls System One works quickly and intuitively. What he calls System Two works slowly and logically. ... The 'ability to suppress an intuitive response in service of cognitive reasoning' describes someone with the patience and will-power to use logic rather than heuristics. It shows a determination to use System Two, not just rely on System One. ... Our goal should be to rely as much as possible on logic and as little as possible on heuristic biases. If using these methods leads to the conclusions that are traditionally libertarian, fine. If not, then we should change our conclusions, not our methods."
Related Topic: Libertarianism
The Myth of the Rational Voter, by Bryan Caplan, Cato Unbound, 6 Nov 2006
Posits that voters mistaken beliefs, in particular about economics, do not "cancel each other out" but instead they compound
"... irrationality, like ignorance, is sensitive to price, and false beliefs about politics and religion are cheap. If you underestimate the costs of excessive drinking, you can ruin your life. ... if you underestimate the benefits of immigration ... what happens to you? In all probability, the same thing that would have happened to you if you knew the whole truth."

Cartoons and Comic Strips

What's the Secret to Success as a TV Pundit?, by Wiley Miller, Non Sequitur, 2 Aug 2008
You're Watching a News Discussion Program?, by Wiley Miller, Non Sequitur, 31 Jul 2008

Books

The Art of Reasoning
    by David Kelley, 1988