Aristotle (382-322 B.C.)
, by Fred Miller, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical and bibliographical essay
Aristotle's philosophical system consists of numerous specialized sciences. He holds that each science must be adapted to its own subject matter with distinctive problems, methods, and first principles. All the sciences presuppose a theory of logic, language, and knowledge, which Aristotle set forth in a set of treatises called the Organon. These common elements include a system of syllogistic logic that prevailed largely unchallenged until the 20th century. Aristotle formulated and defended the law of noncontradiction and the principle of identity ...
I Can't Help That I'm a Libertarian
, by Sheldon Richman
, The Goal Is Freedom
, 1 Aug 2014
Explains why libertarians hold the beliefs they do, in contrast to political conventional wisdom, and why they cannot be silent about them
Strictly speaking, reason doesn't permit us to choose our beliefs. If you follow the steps of an algebraic problem and see why X = 4, do you have a choice about whether to believe that X = 4? Of course not. To see the validity of the steps that yield the solution X = 4 is to believe that X = 4. Belief is not a separate step. If you grasp that an inference logically follows from factual premises and self-evident axioms, can you really elect to disbelieve it? I don't see how. If you look outside and see it is raining, are you free to decide whether to believe it is raining? Not really.
Libertarian as Logician: The True Essence of Libertarianism
, by Arnold Kling, 3 Dec 2012
Discusses the results of a study that showed self-identified libertarians tend to reason logically about moral issues rather than rely on heuristics
Kahneman describes decision-making in terms of two systems. What he calls System One works quickly and intuitively. What he calls System Two works slowly and logically ... The "ability to suppress an intuitive response in service of cognitive reasoning" describes someone with the patience and will-power to use logic rather than heuristics. It shows a determination to use System Two ... Our goal should be to rely as much as possible on logic and as little as possible on heuristic biases. If using these methods leads to the conclusions that are traditionally libertarian, fine. If not, then we should change our conclusions, not our methods.
The Art of Reasoning
by David Kelley
Contents (1990 expanded edition): Introduction - Part One. Concepts and Propositions - Part Two. Arguments - Part Three. Classical Deductive Logic - Part Four. Modern Deductive Logic - Part Five. Inductive Logic
- ISBN 039395613X: Hardcover, W. W. Norton & Company, 1st edition, 1988
- ISBN 0393959139: Hardcover, W. W. Norton & Company, Expanded edition, 1990
- ISBN 0393964663: Paperback, W. W. Norton & Company, 2nd edition, 1994
- ISBN 0393972135: Paperback, W. W. Norton & Company, 3rd edition, 1998