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The science that studies the principles of valid reasoning and argument

Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική, translit. logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore, hence and ergo.)


Aristotle (382-322 BC), by Fred Miller, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
Aristotle's philosophical system consists of numerous specialized sciences. He holds that each science must be adapted to its own subject matter with distinctive problems, methods, and first principles. All the sciences presuppose a theory of logic, language, and knowledge, which Aristotle set forth in a set of treatises called the Organon. These common elements include a system of syllogistic logic that prevailed largely unchallenged until the 20th century. Aristotle formulated and defended the law of noncontradiction and the principle of identity ...
I Can't Help That I'm a Libertarian, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 1 Aug 2014
Explains why libertarians hold the beliefs they do, in contrast to political conventional wisdom, and why they cannot be silent about them
Strictly speaking, reason doesn't permit us to choose our beliefs. If you follow the steps of an algebraic problem and see why X=4, do you have a choice about whether to believe that X=4? Of course not. To see the validity of the steps that yield the solution X=4 is to believe that X=4. Belief is not a separate step. If you grasp that an inference logically follows from factual premises and self-evident axioms, can you really elect to disbelieve it? I don't see how. If you look outside and see it is raining, are you free to decide whether to believe it is raining? Not really.
Related Topics: Libertarianism, The State, War
Libertarian as Logician: The True Essence of Libertarianism, by Arnold Kling, 3 Dec 2012
Discusses the results of a study that showed self-identified libertarians tend to reason logically about moral issues rather than rely on heuristics
Kahneman describes decision-making in terms of two systems. What he calls System One works quickly and intuitively. What he calls System Two works slowly and logically. ... The 'ability to suppress an intuitive response in service of cognitive reasoning' describes someone with the patience and will-power to use logic rather than heuristics. It shows a determination to use System Two, not just rely on System One. ... Our goal should be to rely as much as possible on logic and as little as possible on heuristic biases. If using these methods leads to the conclusions that are traditionally libertarian, fine. If not, then we should change our conclusions, not our methods.
Related Topic: Libertarianism
The Myth of the Rational Voter, by Bryan Caplan, Cato Unbound, 6 Nov 2006
Posits that voters mistaken beliefs, in particular about economics, do not "cancel each other out" but instead they compound
... irrationality, like ignorance, is sensitive to price, and false beliefs about politics and religion are cheap. If you underestimate the costs of excessive drinking, you can ruin your life. ... if you underestimate the benefits of immigration ... what happens to you? In all probability, the same thing that would have happened to you if you knew the whole truth.

Cartoons and Comic Strips

What's the Secret to Success as a TV Pundit?, by Wiley Miller, Non Sequitur, 2 Aug 2008
You're Watching a News Discussion Program?, by Wiley Miller, Non Sequitur, 31 Jul 2008


The Art of Reasoning
    by David Kelley, 1988
Contents (1990 expanded edition): Introduction - Part One. Concepts and Propositions - Part Two. Arguments - Part Three. Classical Deductive Logic - Part Four. Modern Deductive Logic - Part Five. Inductive Logic

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Logic" as of 6 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.