See also:
  • FreedomPedia
  • Libertarianism is the political philosophy that holds that every individual human being should be free to live and think as they choose as long as they do not interfere with that equal right accorded to others. As a consequence, libertarians tend to view governments, which usually attempt to place constraints of various kinds on individuals, as either not necessary for societal interactions or, at most, limited to protecting individuals from agression.

    • Agorism - Libertarian strategy proposed by Samuel E. Konkin III that strives to achieve a voluntary society via non-political means
    • Anarcho-Capitalism - Political theory that rejects governmental authority and advocates laissez-faire capitalism
    • Non-aggression Principle - The libertarian principle that no person should initiate force against another
    • Voluntaryism - Libertarian philosophy that advocates non-political strategies to delegitimize the State

    Web Sites

    Libertarian Hall of Fame
    This was a project (no longer in place) to create both an online hall of fame as well as a physical museum "to honor those who, throughout history, fought for individual liberty against tyranny in all its forms" [was hosted at]
    "Our committee has nominated the following persons ... John Locke, George Mason, H.L. Mencken, Albert Jay Nock, Thomas Paine, Ludwig von Mises, Murray N. Rothbard, Thomas Szasz, Robert Heinlein, Ayn Rand, Harry Browne, Hugo Grotius, Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Victor Hugo, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Tolstoy, Karl Hess, Lord Acton, Frederic Bastiat, John Bright, Frank Chodorov, Richard Cobden, Henry Hazlitt, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Rose Wilder Lane, Lao Tzu, Robert LeFevre, Isabel Paterson, Leonard Read, Algernon Sidney, Herbert Spencer, Lysander Spooner, John Stossel, Milton Friedman, Mark Twain, Grover Cleveland, John Trenchard, Thomas Gordon, 'Tank man', Martin Van Buren, Henry David Thoreau, Sophie Scholl" | Exploring the theory and history of liberty, by Cato Institute
    Sections include: Explore (columns, essays, external resources and media), Guides (self-paced courses), Podcasts and Books
    "Many people believe that liberty is the core political value of modern civilization itself, the one that gives substance and form to all the other values of social life. They're called libertarians."

    Web Pages

    The Advocates for Self-Government Libertarian Celebrities, by Advocates for Self-Government
    List and short profiles of famous or notable libertarian or libertarian-leaning individuals
    The Advocates for Self-Government LIBERTARIANISM 101, by Advocates for Self-Government
    Originally a standalone website, now part of; includes introductory video by Marshall Fritz, definitions of libertarian by notable individuals, frequently asked questions and lists of organizations, publications, websites and celebrities


    The Libertarian Standard: Property - Prosperity - Peace
    Group blog of mostly Austrian and Rothbardian-influenced libertarians (appears to be inactive since January 2015)


    Advocates for Self-Government - Libertarian Education: Jeff Riggenbach - Libertarian, by Bill Winter
    Includes picture, biographical profile and quote
    "Riggenbach received his first copy of ... The Freeman in 1963. In it, 'I found a definition (offered by ... Leonard Read, of whom I had never heard) of a word that was also new to me: the word libertarian,' Riggenbach wrote ... 'With something of a start, I realized that this word described me. I was a "libertarian" — and not, as I had thought, a conservative.' ... his first book, In Praise of Decadence [is] an overview of the libertarian movement's impact on the 1960s, argued that baby boomers 'have always been more libertarian than anyone expected,' according to Prometheus Books."
    Related Topic: Jeff Riggenbach
    A Fairy Tale of the Austrian Movement, by Joseph Salerno, Mises Daily, 25 Sep 2007
    Review of Brian Doherty's Radicals for Capitalism, in particular of the section in chapter 7 where Peter Boettke discusses Austrian economics
    "The outstanding merit of Brian Doherty's book is that it contains a treasure trove of valuable information regarding the events, personalities, periodicals and organizations whose complex interplay influenced the intellectual and institutional development of the modern American libertarian movement. ... he takes at face value and naively repeats without critical discussion the most absurd and self-serving pronouncements by commentators aligned with one faction or another. Nowhere is this more evident than in his treatment of the contemporary revival of Austrian economics, a key factor that drove the evolution of the modern libertarian movement"
    A Libertarian Odyssey, by Ken Schoolland
    Autobiographical essay; part of Walter Block's autobiography archive
    "I traveled to Hawaii ... and stumbled across various Libertarian Party candidates giving speeches at a university campus. I met Roger MacBride, Fred James, Rockne Johnson, Dale Pratt, and others. ... I was also thrilled to discover the world of liberty literature: i.e., Bastiat's The Law, Rothbard's For a New Liberty ... and Thoreau's On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. One little film, 'The Incredible Bread Machine' by World Research Inc., permitted me to introduce libertarian ideas to all of my students in Alaska. ... Later in Hawaii it was Friedman's 'Free to Choose' video series."
    Along Pennsylvania Avenue, by Murray Rothbard, Faith and Freedom, Sep 1955
    After some comments on politics and politicians, covers the debate over the TVA from both Republican and Democrat sides and finds a libertarian voice in a young Republican, ending with remarks on regulatory mischief at the Civil Aeronautics Board
    "Someone should have shown the courage of libertarian principle to answer Yes to these fundamental questions. But one congressman, ... Bruce Alger ... brought the fresh breeze of clear principle into the debate. How shocked his listeners must have been when they heard: "... The development of power ... is not the prerogative of the Federal Government. It is unconstitutional. Public power, by definition, is a form of socialism and no oratory can conceal or change it. ... Government is to protect our rights and freedoms, not compete with them. ... A bad law should not be continued or tolerated by a reduced appropriation. ...""
    Related Topics: Politics, Socialism, Transportation
    Along Pennsylvania Avenue, by Murray Rothbard, Faith and Freedom, Nov 1955
    Discusses the scramble for positioning after Ike's Sept. 1955 heart attack, whether Nixon merits being called a conservative, the planning for a new, yet unnamed political party, and possible candidates of both traditional parties for the 1956 elections
    "Every libertarian should rejoice to find Bracken Lee's name on the ballot. ... Governor Lee has refused to pay his income tax on grounds that the Constitution doesn't provide for taxing us to benefit foreign states. Ask yourself what other politician advocates repeal of the 16th (Income Tax) amendment? Who else urges withdrawal from the UN? What other Governor refuses Federal grants-in-aid for highways? Who else dared to challenge the powerful educationist lobby by cutting school costs and selling state colleges to private enterprise? Who else denounced the fraud of social security? Or proclaimed foreign aid unconstitutional?"
    Related Topic: Richard Nixon
    Along Pennsylvania Avenue, by Murray Rothbard, Faith and Freedom, Sep 1956
    Recounts the activist efforts surrounding passage of the Alaska Mental Healh Enabling Act, then expresses hope that Khrushchev's speech on the cult of Stalin may signal the "crackup" of the Soviet empire
    "Libertarians can now take heart, because the great drama of the past session of Congress featured the triumph of a vigilant handful of alert libertarians. The national press has given this victory no publicity—it would hardly be convenient to advertise such a defeat for the statist machine. ... It is unfortunate, of course, that the governrnent mixes in medical matters at all ... But, at least, a small group of libertarians rose up and struck a mighty blow. They blocked an opening wedge for compulsory commitment on the federal plane. And they showed us what energy, grit, and vigilance can achieve."
    Related Topic: Socialism
    Alternative Medicine Is Libertarian Medicine, by Butler Shaffer, 2 Dec 2006
    Discusses several aspects of healthcare, including self-ownership, being responsible for our own care, decentralized information, the collapse of external authorities and the dehumanizing decisions resulting from institutionalized healthcare
    "From a libertarian perspective, the 'self-ownership' question is what this conference is all about. Indeed, this is all that libertarian thinking comes down to. The 'war on drugs,' conscription, taxation, compulsory education, war, ... everything the state touches, comes down to a question of 'who owns you?' Ownership is manifested by control, ... who gets to make decisions about what? State-licensed, state-mandated, state-standardized medical practice, are all at war with the concept and practice of self-ownership."
    A Man, a Plan, a Flop, by David Gordon, Mises Daily, 23 Apr 2006
    Critical review of Murray's In Our Hands: A Plan to Replace the Welfare State
    "Murray characterizes his own project as an effort 'to extend a hand across the political divide between libertarians and social democrats, offering a compromise that provided generous assistance for dealing with human needs without entailing the suffocating and soulless welfare state.' ... But libertarianism rejects coercive redistribution and social democracy embraces it: how then is compromise possible? ... Those who do not share Murray's non-Euclidean brand of libertarianism will view such police state measures with suspicion. The internal passport was a defining feature of Soviet communism."
    An Interview With David Theroux, by David J. Theroux, Strike The Root, 2 Sep 2003
    Topics discussed include: the Independent Institute, Theroux's life before founding it, possible connection to Thoreau, the Vietnam War, his heroes and influencers, activism, September 11 and book recommendations
    "However, my independence also has made me a skeptic of the claims of others. Hence, although libertarian ideas came naturally to me, it took a while for me to fully accept many of its applications until I had had the time to closely examine the arguments and evidence involved. But upon my doing so, I was fortunate to acquire a broad knowledge and deep appreciation of libertarian ideas and the nuances of them that proved to be of enormous value as I pursued my future work. ... Libertarianism is a theory of justice, and anyone who works tirelessly to advance such a crucial standard of the rule of law is a hero to me."
    Aristotle (382-322 BC), by Fred Miller, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Aristotle's overall political position was conservative rather than libertarian. ... Yet he also contributed to libertarian theory, especially through his theory of political justice. He criticized Plato's collectivist ideal, arguing that the best constitution promotes the interests of each and every citizen—and, hence, protects individual rights. Aristotle's constitutional theory also had an indirect, but important, influence on European classical liberals and on the founders of the American constitution. Indeed, some recent American libertarian political theorists explicitly acknowledge their debt to Aristotle."
    A Salute to Bettina Bien Greaves, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jul 1997
    Written for Greaves' 80th birthday to show an appreciation and the extent of her work for liberty
    "Long before mainstream publishers began to run articles and issue books by libertarian authors, there were lively debates in libertarian publications such as Plain Talk, American Affairs, Books for Libertarians, Christian Economics, Inquiry, Journal of Libertarian Studies, New Individualist Review, Libertarian Review, Liberty, and Reason. Most of these are gone, and even the ones still going can't be found at most libraries, but they're in Bettina's office. She has material from many of the early libertarian organizations which became landmarks in the movement ..."
    Ayn Rand at 100, by David Boaz, 2 Feb 2005
    Discusses the influence of Ayn Rand, after the publication of her two main novels, during the 1960s through the 1980s and to this day, with sales of about half a million of her books per year
    "In the dark year of 1943 ... three remarkable women published books that gave birth to the modern libertarian movement. Rose Wilder Lane ... published a passionate historical essay called The Discovery of Freedom. Novelist and literary critic Isabel Paterson produced The God of the Machine ... Although [Rand's] political philosophy was libertarian, not all libertarians shared her views on metaphysics, ethics, and religion ... Rand's work rests squarely within the libertarian tradition, with roots going back to Aristotle, Aquinas, Locke, Jefferson, Paine, Bastiat, Spencer, Mill, and Mises."
    Related Topics: Capitalism, Ayn Rand
    Benjamin Ricketson Tucker, Part 2, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Sep 2007
    Biographical essay on Benjamin Tucker from the first issue of Liberty until his death
    "Radical individualism as an organized movement would not appear in America again until the mid 1950s. The movement was due in no small part to a rediscovery of individualism's uniquely American roots — roots that still lived and breathed through the efforts of zealots such as Tucker. An energetic new generation discarded antiquated ideas, such as the labor theory of value. But they also recognized the vast areas of theory in which Tucker sparkled across the decades. By integrating the political theories of Tucker into the economic framework of Austrian economics, the modern libertarian movement was born."
    Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order, by Wendy McElroy, Literature of Liberty, 1981
    Bibliographical essay covering the people and radical movements that influenced Tucker in his founding and publishing of Liberty, its major themes and contributors
    "Internal conflicts and compromises over supporting the [Civil] War splintered the movement so that libertarianism thereafter was basically expressed, not as a movement in its own right, but as the radical faction within other movements such as freethought and free love. ... In many ways, Tucker exemplified the golden age of libertarianism which faltered in the face of growing statism and militarism. ... His death, like that of Herbert Spencer, marked the end of an era. Libertarianism as an organized movement in America would not appear again for many years."
    Best of Both Worlds: An Interview with Milton Friedman, by Milton Friedman, Brian Doherty, Reason, Jun 1995
    Topics discussed include: the new Congress, flat taxes, the withholding tax, the people who influenced him, what led him to write about policy issues, libertarianism and how his political views have changed over the years
    "My philosophy is clearly libertarian. However, libertarian is not a self-defining term. There are many varieties of libertarians. There's a zero-government libertarian, an anarchist. There's a limited-government libertarianism. They share a lot in terms of their fundamental values. If you trace them to their ultimate roots, they are different. It doesn't matter in practice, because we both want to work in the same direction. ... The United States from 1780 to 1929 is not a bad example of a limited-government libertarianism that lasted for a long time."
    Isabel Paterson and the Ideas of America, by Wendy McElroy, 30 Mar 2005
    Review of the book Isabel Paterson and the Idea of America: The Woman and the Dynamo (2004) by University of California, San Diego professor of literature Stephen Cox
    "... why did and does the libertarian movement ... not celebrate and embrace its fiction writers in the same manner as the Left? ... Cox ... believes that the 'Old Right' — as libertarians of Paterson's time (circa the 1930s) are commonly called — has been defined by a handful of historians, especially by Murray Rothbard ... I ... ascribe Paterson's obscurity far more to libertarianism's tendency to ignore its literary figures ... Yet nowhere are fiction writers — even successful ones such as Robert Heinlein — granted the same respect as university professors, economists, and those who are elected to office."
    Related Topics: Isabel Paterson, Ayn Rand
    Clark For President: A Report on the 1980 Libertarian Presidential Campaign, by Ed Crane (Communications Director), Chris Hocker (National Coordinator), Dec 1980
    Post-mortem analysis of the Clark campaign, focusing on what the authors consider were the ten most important aspects, and in terms of what was learned that could be useful to later campaigns
    "... the ... Clark position papers ... should serve as the basis for Libertarian position statements in the future. The Clark campaign released the following ...:
    • Inflation (Murray N. Rothbard)
    • Agriculture (Gary Roewe/campaign staff)
    • Women's Rights (Joan Kennedy Taylor)
    • Housing (campaign staff)
    • First Amendment Freedoms (Ross Levatter)
    • Federal Election Laws (Eric Scott Royce)
    • Government vs. the Automobile (Clayton Cramer)
    • A Nuclear Diad: The Sensible Alternative to the MX (campaign staff)
    • Controlled Substances (Jeff Riggenbach)
    • Energy (Joe Cobb/Dom Armentano)
    Clint Eastwood announces: I'm a "libertarian", Libertarian Party News, 18 Feb 1997
    Libertarian Party press release based on Eastwood's response to a Playboy interview question: "How would you characterize yourself politically?"
    "Eastwood joins a growing number of individuals in the entertainment industry who have identified themselves as libertarians. Included on that list are TV star John Laroquette, humorist Dave Barry, author P.J. O'Rourke, movie actor Russell Means, magician Jillette Penn, author Camille Paglia, TV reporter John Stossell, and comedian Dennis Miller."
    David F. Nolan - The Advocates for Self-Government
    Includes photo, biography and the essay "Nolan: Innovator for Liberty" by James W. Harris
    "Dave is pleased by the rapidly-growing acceptance of libertarian ideas, and that makes him optimistic about the future of liberty. 'We're definitely picking up a lot of velocity, and that's the cumulative effect of all the work that all of us have done.' He points to the Advocates list of '64 Libertarian Organizations' ... and notes jokingly, 'There are more organizations on that list than there were libertarians 25 years ago. That's an indication of the huge degree of acceptance of our ideas. ... The struggle between the forces of control and the forces of liberty is rapidly moving towards a climax ...'"
    Dialectics and Liberty: A Defense of Dialectical Method in the Service of a Libertarian Social Theory, by Chris Matthew Sciabarra, The Freeman, Sep 2005
    Written ten years after publication of the first two of Sciabarra's "Dialectic and Liberty" trilogy, discusses Hayek's and Rand's dialectical analysis approaches and suggests that such context-keeping analysis is important in radical libertarian theory
    "It is odd to find the word "dialectics" conjoined with anything remotely having to do with "libertarianism." ... A proper defense of the free society is one that must lay to rest the notion that classical liberalism, or libertarianism, as such, depends on static, ahistorical, or atomistic thinking. It is possible, nay, necessary, to present a form of libertarian social analysis that makes use of the very dialectical techniques that are its birthright. It is time to recapture dialectics as a tool for liberty. That was the goal of my "Dialectics and Liberty" trilogy."
    Do You Consider Yourself a Libertarian?, by Lew Rockwell, Kenny Johnsson, 25 May 2007
    Interview by Kenny Johnsson for "The Liberal Post" blog; topic include libertarianism, statism, war, elections, taxes, anarchism and the U.S. Constitution
    "What are the choices? Conservative is obviously out, even though the media describe us this way. ... I like the term liberal since genuine liberalism is our heritage [but] the liberal critique of the state just wasn't radical enough. ... I once used, 'paleolibertarian' ... There are other strange terms bandied about from time to time, but in the end, I think we have to be happy with the term libertarian, while knowing that politics tends to taint all word usage issues. What is a libertarian? It is a person who believes in the absolute right of private property ownership. All else follows from that one proposition."
    Election 2006: A War Referendum, by Justin Raimondo, 16 Oct 2006
    Discusses the then forthcoming 2006 U.S. congressional elections as a referendum on the Iraq War and commentary from Markos Moulitsas and Nick Gillespie in a Cato Unbound debate titled "Should Libertarians Vote Democrat?"
    "Libertarians should have no compunction about going to where their best audiences reside. In 1930, we were considered extreme Republicans, and allied ourselves with the anti-New Deal coalition that made up the Old Right. In the 1970s, we broke with the conservative movement, staked out a staunchly antiwar position on the Vietnam question, and made a conscious decision to recruit from the Left ... why not reclaim the party of Thomas Jefferson for his beleaguered heirs? Come to think of it, that's a much better designation for libertarians: Jeffersonian Democrats has a nice, salable ring to it ..."
    Enemy of the State, by Lew Rockwell, Mises Daily, 24 Nov 2006
    Review of Raimondo's biography of Rothbard, An Enemy of the State, analyzing several of the conventional critiques of Rothbard that are countered in the book; includes quote of Rothbard to Robert Kephart about the Rothbard's life choices
    "Rothbard was the architect of the body of thought known around the world as libertarianism. This radically anti-state political philosophy unites free-market economics, a no-exceptions attachment to private property rights, a profound concern for human liberty, and a love of peace with the conclusion that society should be completely free to develop absent any interference from the state, which can and should be eliminated. ... Rothbard kept plugging away on extending the libertarian framework, with pieces throughout the 1970s ... and, most importantly, The Ethics of Liberty appeared in 1982. "
    Epstein, Richard A. (1943-), by Aaron Steelman, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Although Epstein's discussions of eminent domain and antidiscrimination laws may appear radical to some observers, they in fact reveal how his worldview differs from those libertarians who see themselves as more uncompromising in their views. Epstein is no anarchist, nor does he believe that government action should be confined to protecting people from violence. In other words, he is no advocate of a night watchman state. Instead, he argues that the state must intervene in the provision of key public goods, such as supplying the nation's infrastructure in transportation and energy to overcome coordination problems among private interests."
    Related Topic: Richard Epstein
    Faculty Spotlight Interview: Walter Block, by Walter Block, 18 Jan 2010
    Asks Block about his hobbies, greatest inspiration, the impact of his work and more
    "Then there is the libertarian movement ... people who once were libertarians, who still think they are libertarians ... instead support the Fed and fiat currency, do not want to end foreign entanglements, ... oppose the full privatization of health, education, welfare, and instead come up with all sorts of vacillating, compromising programs such as educational vouchers, government-business partnerships, and engage in consulting for the state, etc. There are so called right wing 'libertarians' who favor foreign imperialistic ventures, and left wing 'libertarians' for whom profits and corporations are per se a dirty word."
    Faculty Spotlight Interview: Wendy McElroy, by Wendy McElroy, 3 Feb 2011
    Topics discussed include: hobbies, Murray Rothbard, the Mises Institute, Benjamin Tucker, Auberon Herbert, libertarianism and the feminist movement, and her advice for future Austrian scholars
    "The movement has become a large enough umbrella to include schools like libertarian feminism or, more broadly, individualist feminism. This is an encouraging development over the last few decades. The dominant school, however, is still 'gender' feminism which is politically correct and far-left leaning. ... On the other hand, libertarianism has produced wonderful female scholars, such as Ellen Frankel Paul, and an impressive body of supporting work in feminism. (Please see an anthology I edited entitled Liberty for Women: Freedom and Feminism in the Twenty-First Century for a sense of the richness and breadth of scholarship.)"
    Floyd Arthur 'Baldy' Harper, RIP, by Murray Rothbard, The Libertarian Forum, May 1973
    Biographical remembrance of "Baldy" including his involvement in FEE, the Volker Fund and the IHS
    "But Baldy's abiding passion was a deep concern for strategy, for the development of a strategic theory and practice for the libertarian cause. It was out of this concern for strategy that Baldy developed his lifelong dream, his vision of the course which libertarians must take for ultimate victory. He saw that the nub and the heart of libertarian strategy must be ideas and scholarship, that activism could never succeed unless informed by a body of ideas and research on the deepest and most advanced levels. Baldy's great vision was to guide and develop a body of libertarian scholarship and research."
    Frederic Bastiat, Ingenious Champion for Liberty and Peace, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jun 1997
    Lengthy biographical essay, covering those who influenced Bastiat as well as those influenced by him, his writings (including correspondence with his friend Félix Coudroy), his roles in the French Constituent and Legistative Assemblies and his legacy
    "Amidst the upheaval, Bastiat published about a dozen issues of La République française, a two-page periodical defending libertarian principles. He insisted that people must be secure in 'all rights, those of the conscience as well as those of intelligence; those of property, like those of work; those of the family as those of the commune; those of the country as those of humanity. I have no other ideal than universal justice; no other banner than that of our flag: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.'"
    Free-Market Socialism, by Sheldon Richman, 14 Nov 2014
    Counters the caricature of libertarians as hyperindividualists and explains the benefits that could be gained from truly freed markets
    "Nothing about libertarianism commits its adherents to what critics call 'atomistic individualism.' That would be a curious descriptor for people who love the ideas of trade and the division of labor, even among perfect strangers at great distances. ... Libertarians, to the extent that they grasp the fundamentals of their philosophy, care about social dynamics, which accounts for their fascination with economics, especially the Austrian school."
    Related Topic: Free Market
    Gil's Libertarian Mix Tape, by Gil Guillory, 6 Jan 2007
    Includes lyrics to the 18 selected songs; broken into categories of Economics (five songs), Fight the Man (four), Omnipotent Government (6) and The Promise of Freedom (four)
    "Some of the unwritten rules of making a mix tape are: - songs must be good - tapes are limited to about 90 min running time - try to pick songs that are unlikely to have been heard by the listener - tell a story or pick a theme - track sequencing is important — must have good flow - the selections should reflect your personality. Doing my best to adhere to these rules, I present my own libertarian mix tape below. The point is to demonstrate and explain libertarian ideas, so I will comment on or explain each song."
    Related Topic: Music
    Give Them Libertarianism, and a Moving Van: For 4,800 people seeking a bastion of hands-off rule, the most alluring state has the motto 'Live Free or Die', by Seth Stern, The Christian Science Monitor, 17 Oct 2003
    Describes the beginnings of the Free State Project, shortly after New Hampshire was selected as the destination state
    "It wasn't just the cheap rent and quiet living that convinced Justin Somma to move ... to the southwestern corner of New Hampshire last month. Equally appealing to this libertarian-minded 20-something is his new state's lack of an income tax or even a motorcycle-helmet law. ... Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire share the 'live and let live' attitude that puts privacy first in social policies such as gay rights or abortion, says Dartmouth College professor Richard Winters."
    Hess, Karl (1923-1994), by Brian Doherty, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "After the Goldwater campaign, Hess went through personal and political changes that found him aligned more toward the culturally leftist end of the libertarian movement. ... He brought to the libertarian movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s, particularly its campus branches, a colorful Left-leaning revolutionary style that many found attractive, especially within the context of Vietnam War–era student unrest. He described himself as the 'master of ceremonies' of the libertarian breach with the conservative youth group Young Americans for Freedom in 1969."
    Related Topics: Karl Hess, Technology
    Hope for the Politically Homeless, by Marshall Fritz, The Fresno Bee, 4 Sep 1988
    Introduces David Nolan's Chart which Fritz turned into a Diamond Chart, and Fritz's (original) World's Smallest Political Quiz to help people place themselves within the Chart
    "If you scored 'libertarian,' and were surprised, you may wonder if the quiz is biased. A quick way to demonstrate that it is not biased is to answer the questions for your congressman, senator or presidential candidate. They will not come out libertarian. ... The Diamond Chart ... gives a home to 30 million Americans who have been politically homeless -- the latent libertarians. What's the definition of 'libertarianism'? According to family physician Kenneth Bisson of Angola, Ind., 'Libertarianism is what your mom taught you: "Behave yourself and don't hit your sister."'"
    Related Topics: David Nolan, Politics
    How I Became a Libertarian, by Mary Ruwart, 14 Dec 2002
    Part of Walter Block's autobiography series; Dr. Ruwart recounts some key moments in her path to libertarianism and anarchism, from Swamp Fox to Atlas Shrugged to Morris and Linda Tannehill
    "My first introduction to hard-core libertarian concepts was in my freshman year of college when a friend insisted that I read Atlas Shrugged. Although I enjoyed the book immensely, I was concerned with its apparent lack of compassion. Raised as a Catholic, I could not reconcile the concept of ending tax-supported welfare with Christ's admonition to love our neighbors. In considering this dilemma, I suddenly became aware of a pivotal point: although refusing to help others might not be very loving, pointing guns at our neighbors to force them to help those in need was even less so."
    How I Became a Libertarian and an Austrian Economist, by Richard Ebeling, 2 May 2016
    Autobiographical essay highlighting the people and events who influenced him in his path to libertarianism and Austrian economics
    "I suppose I can date my interest in both libertarianism and Austrian Economics from the day I was born. The doctor grabbed me by my little feet, turned me upside down and spanked my tiny bottom. I began to cry out. ... I appreciated that what the doctor had done was in violation of the 'non-aggression' principle. The rest is history. Well . . . maybe not quite. ... But [Murray Rothbard] was the radical libertarian – 'Mr. Libertarian' as some came to call him – the master system-builder of a 'science of liberty' based on the 'natural rights' of individuals to freedom on Aristotelian philosophical foundations. "
    How To Sell Liberty, by Jarret Wollstein, Jun 1998
    Discusses eight principles of effective salesmanship and how to apply them to market liberty
    "Some groups are particularly solid prospects for libertarianism, including:
    • Baby Boomers – affluent Americans between 40 and 60 (polls indicate that most of them are already informal libertarians);
    • Generation Xers – born after 1960, they are strongly individualistic and suspicious of authority;
    • Students – their minds are still open;
    • Beleaguered Taxpayers – they are already fed up with big government;
    • Small Business Owners their tax and regulatory burden grows every year; and
    • Victims of the State – the unjustly arrested, law-abiding gun owners, peaceful drug users, and those with unconventional lifestyles.
    Related Topic: Liberty
    How We Started "Liberty", by R. W. Bradford, Liberty, Sep 1992
    Reflections on the fifth anniversary of publishing Liberty
    "By the middle of 1967, it was the inability of libertarians to realize that the principle of inalienable rights led inexorably to anarchism that annoyed me. ... For our May issue, Waters wrote an essay entitled 'The Two Libertarianisms,' which elaborated his thinking about the tension between moralistic libertarianism and consequentialist libertarianism, concluding that some sort of synthesis of the two might be worked out. ... John Dentinger and Murray Rothbard squared off in our March issue on the question of whether libertarianism was too closely identified with the political right."
    I Can't Help That I'm a Libertarian, by Sheldon Richman, 1 Aug 2014
    Excellent essay on why libertarians hold their beliefs and why they can't be sitlent about them
    "My understanding of what it means to be human, of the conditions under which reason-bearing, language-using social animals can flourish, of the nature of violence, and of the essence of the state all lead me to conclude that individuals should be free of aggression, essentially the initiation of physical force. And that means all persons should be unmolested as they peacefully go about their lives, formulating plans and aspirations, justly acquiring possessions ..., and engaging in voluntary cooperation — such as trade — with other persons."
    Related Topic: War
    In Praise of "Thick" Libertarianism, by Sheldon Richman, 4 Apr 2014
    Examines "thin" and "thick" libertarianism, explaining how being noncomittal about racism undermines the principle of non-initiation of force, contrasting libertarian and progressive views on dealing with racism
    "To put it more concretely, if a libertarian observed a growing propensity to embrace (nonviolent) racism, that person, qua libertarian, ought to be concerned. Why? Because that attitude and resulting conduct can be expected to eat away at the values conducive to libertarianism. It's the same sort of reason that a libertarian would be concerned by, say, a growing acceptance of Keynesian ideas ... In its denial of dignity to individuals merely by virtue of their membership in a racial group , there is a potential for violence implicit in racism that is too strong for libertarians to ignore."
    Related Topic: Ayn Rand
    Interview: Richard Maybury, by Richard J. Maybury, Jim Elwood, Freedom Network News, 2003
    Topics discussed include: how Maybury became a libertarian, his "Uncle Eric" books and homeschooling, the "packaging" needed to sell liberty and his Early Warning Report investment newsletter
    "If I say I am a libertarian, I mean, among other things, I try to be kind and honorable, and I want liberty and prosperity for all. I've met others who think libertarian means a cold, arrogant, greedy capitalist who wants to bring back the era of the so-called robber barons. This is why the premise of the whole set of Uncle Eric books – the foundation of all the analysis – is two basic laws ... The first law is, do all you have agreed to do. The second is, do not encroach on other persons or their property. These two rules, the essence of libertarianism, are taught by all religions. Atheists agree with them, too."
    Interview with Robert Nozick, by Robert Nozick, Julian Sanchez, 26 Jul 2001
    Topics discussed include: ethics, science and philosophy, Karl Popper and the scientific method, Ayn Rand and epistemology, consciousness, relativism and the academic left and Nozick himself
    "Perhaps it has to do with the two sides of libertarian ideas. There is the boldness and excitement of libertarian ideas, the new possibilities for thinking, and for life in society that they open up, and there also are the sharp, and sharply reasoned, weapons they provide for attacking and even crushing other ideas. So perhaps it is not surprising that libertarianism has attracted two distinct types of temperaments, each one resonating to one of libertarianism's two different aspects."
    It Usually Ends With Murray Rothbard: My Long and Winding Road to Libertarianism and Austrian Economics, by Joseph Salerno, 23 Jun 2005
    Lengthy autobiographical essay recounting Prof. Salerno's progression from conservatism to anarcho-capitalism, from classical to Austrian economics, and meeting and getting to know Murray Rothbard
    "[The] cover article of the New York Times Magazine (1971) entitled 'The New Right Credo – Libertarianism' [by] Stan Lehr and Louis Rossetto, Jr. ... presented the first comprehensive account ... of the unadulterated libertarian political philosophy, carefully differentiating it from both establishment liberalism and conservatism as well as from the New Left, whose positions it shared on the abolition of the draft and all drug laws and an immediate U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam. [It] also portrayed libertarianism as a vital and flourishing political movement that drew inspiration from Rand and science fiction writer Robert Heinlein ..."
    Jane Cobden: Carrying on Her Father's Work, by Sheldon Richman, 25 Jul 2014
    Biographical essay on Jane Cobden, daughter of Richard Cobden, who continued her father's advocacy of free trade and other libertarian issues
    "The triplet land reform, peace, and social justice has a left-wing sound today, but that’s because the modern classical liberal/libertarian movement from the 1930s onward got sidetracked by an alliance of convenience with the conservative and nationalist American Right, which, like the liberals, also opposed the New Deal and (in those days, but alas no more) militarism."
    Related Topic: Richard Cobden
    Joan Kennedy Taylor, by Jeff Riggenbach, 14 Jan 2011
    Biographical essay, including a review of Taylor's book Reclaiming the Mainstream: Individualist Feminism Rediscovered; transcript of "The Libertarian Tradition" podcasts of 28 Dec 2010 and 12 Jan 2011
    "Were not women individuals, just as men were? It seemed to Joan that any libertarian was by definition also a feminist. Did not women own their own bodies, just as men did? Were they not entitled to the same rights that men enjoyed? What sort of 'libertarian' would balk at amending the US Constitution to recognize the equal rights of women, when these rights had been systematically abrogated and denied in large and small ways, both by the federal government and by state and local governments, ever since the founding of the United States?"
    John Lilburne: The First English Libertarian, by Peter Richards, 29 Mar 2008
    Detailed biographical essay of "Freeborn John" concluding with reasons to use the modern term "libertarian" for him
    "In the 19th century, John Lilburne would have been accurately described as a liberal. At that time the word 'liberal' indicated someone who believed in the liberty of the individual. Liberalism favored 'laissez-faire' economics and the protection of civil liberties. ... a new word was needed to describe someone who believed in liberty of the traditional kind. 'Libertarian' was the new word coined to describe liberal in its original meaning, i.e., that of a classical liberal. Libertarians believe in life, liberty, and property and I believe there is adequate evidence in his life story to show that John Lilburne believed in this philosophy too."
    Karl Hess and the Death of Politics, by Jeff Riggenbach, 13 May 2010
    Transcript of the 6 May 2010 "Libertarian Tradition" podcast with a wealth of biographical information
    "Under Rothbard's influence, Hess wrote an essay on libertarianism called 'The Death of Politics,' which appeared in Playboy in March 1969 and is now widely regarded, and quite properly, as one of the founding documents of the contemporary libertarian movement. ... When he started writing his autobiography in the late '80s and early '90s, he chose to portray himself in pretty much the way I have done in this essay — as a lifelong libertarian who had, somewhat ironically, spent most of his life wandering around searching for his true political identity and his true ideological home."
    LeFevre, Robert (1911-1986), by Brian Doherty, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "LeFevre's beliefs were similar to those taught by Murray Rothbard and F. A. Harper, a property-based libertarianism that saw any initiation of force or abrogation of property rights as crimes. But LeFevre's views on several subjects were more radical, even in libertarian terms. For example, he held even defensive force completely impermissible. He also was resolutely against any political action to spread libertarian ideas—in fact, against any action at all other than the education of others in libertarian principles and personal attempts to disengage from the state."
    Related Topic: Robert LeFevre
    Libertarian as Logician: The True Essence of Libertarianism, by Arnold Kling, 3 Dec 2012
    Discusses the results of a study that showed self-identified libertarians tend to reason logically about moral issues rather than rely on heuristics
    "What is the essence of libertarian thinking? Most libertarians would point to libertarian principles, such as the non-aggression principle. ... The research by Ravi Iyer, et al, found evidence that libertarians have a propensity to employ what Kahneman would call System Two. ... Thus, we should consider taking the core belief of libertarianism to be the attempt to substitute logic for heuristics in the analysis of moral issues. The emphasis should be on the word attempt. For libertarians, logical thinking is not necessarily our exclusive ability. Rather, it is an obligation that we should try to fulfill."
    Related Topic: Logic
    Libertarian Class Analysis, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Jun 2006
    Examines the class analysis of Charles Comte, Charles Dunoyer and Augustin Thierry and its basis on the writings of J. B. Say
    "... Marx did not originate class analysis or the idea of class conflict. These things have their roots in radical liberalism, or libertarianism, predating Marx's writings. ... Marx himself paid homage to the originators, a group of historians in post–Napoleonic France who have been neglected by all but a handful of modern-day libertarians. ... What can libertarians do about it? First, they must themselves understand liberal class theory. They must not shy away from it because it was hijacked by the Marxists. Second, they should use whatever influence they have to raise the class-consciousness of all honest, productive people."
    Libertarianism: Left or Right?, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Jun 2007
    Examines the origin of the political terms "left" and "right" and makes the case that libertarianism is properly on the Left of the spectrum
    "Is libertarianism of the Left or of the Right? ... Left and Right did not refer merely to which side of the assembly one sat on or one's attitude toward the regime. ... The Left understood that historically the state was the most powerful engine of exploitation ... the Left was identified with the liberation of workers (broadly defined). Today we don't associate libertarians with such a notion, but it was at the heart of the libertarian vision. ... Libertarians also showed their Left colors by opposing imperialism, war, and the accompanying violations of civil liberties, such as conscription and arbitrary detention."
    Libertarianism: The Moral and the Practical, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, May 2014
    Explores whether libertarian policies ought to be based on moral or practical bases, with insigths from Aristotle, Adam Smith, Tibor Machan, Roderick Long and others
    "... we must inquire whether libertarian concerns are really divisible into, on the one hand, a concern with duties (deontology), for example, respecting individual rights, and on the other, a concern with practical consequences. ... You hear libertarians say they would favor freedom even if it did not promote good outcomes such as prosperity because people have a right to freedom that is separate from its consequences. (Of course, they don't actually believe that freedom could have bad consequences. But is that just a lucky coincidence? ...) "
    Libertarianism and the Great Divide, by Justin Raimondo, 16 Mar 2007
    Review of Brian Doherty's Radicals for Capitalism (2007) concluding with remarks about a Cato Unbound debate on the book
    "[The book] chronicles the forgotten organizational history of the libertarian movement, the early institutional pillars ... the magisterial Mises, the imperious Rand, the uproarious Rothbard, Hayek the dreamer and Friedman the exemplar ... are treated at length, but it's the second-tier "movement" types, such as Leonard Read, Frank Chodorov, "Baldy" Harper, Rose Wilder Lane, and other even less known individuals who provide us with some really fascinating glimpses into the libertarian mindset and give us a sense of libertarianism as more than just an idea, but a movement."
    Libertarianism and the War, by Justin Raimondo, 2 Apr 2007
    Criticizes a Cato Unbound symposium titled "Libertarianism: Past and Prospects" with contributed essays from Brian Doherty, Brink Lindsey, Tyler Cowen, Tom G. Palmer and Virginia Postrel
    "Over at Cato Unbound ... the libertarian "pragmatists" are arguing that it's time to dissolve libertarianism into the Sensible Center – to give up the idea that libertarians can ever significantly roll back the size and power of government ... the prospects for the growth of libertarianism as a popular ideology ... have never been better ... Libertarianism has a long and glorious tradition, not the least of which is the principled anti-imperialist legacy of Leonard Read, Frank Chodorov, Murray Rothbard, and a long list of others. ... libertarians have every reason to face the future with growing confidence."
    Libertarianism Is Not Atheist, Is Not Religious, by Wendy McElroy, The Daily Bell, 9 Oct 2014
    Examines Rothbard's views in a 1987 article about freedom and religion, in particular regarding Ayn Rand's atheistic influences on early modern libertarianism
    "What is libertarianism? Murray's definition: "Libertarianism is not and does not pretend to be a complete moral, or aesthetic theory; it is only a political theory, that is, the important subset of moral theory that deals with the proper role of violence in social life ... Libertarianism holds that the only proper role of violence is to defend person and property against violence, that any use of violence that goes beyond such just defense is itself aggressive, unjust, and criminal." ... Past the point of eschewing violence, however, his behavior is irrelevant to the question of libertarianism."
    Libertarianism Is the Key to Our Future, by Jacob Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Jul 2006
    Examines three reasons (freedom, morality and pragmatism) that suggest that Americans will eventually return to their libertarian heritage
    "Libertarianism, not socialism or interventionism, is the cornerstone of our nation's heritage of freedom. Libertarianism succeeds in producing rising standards of living, nurtures voluntary charity, and promotes harmonies among people. It is a philosophy grounded in the moral foundations of freedom. Libertarianism is the key to the future of our nation."
    Libertarianism Rightly Conceived, by Sheldon Richman, 2 May 2014
    Responds to criticisms made by Walter Block and Lew Rockwell about Richman's "What Social Animals Owe to Each Other"
    "The proposition on the table is that the most robust case for the libertarian philosophy ... entails commitments not only to the Nonaggression Principle ... but also to other values that don't directly relate to aggression (for example, opposition to even non-rights-violating forms of racism). Charles W. Johnson ... does not say that someone who rejects these commitments is not a libertarian. He says only that rejection of the commitments weakens the best case for libertarianism, which in turn could weaken a particular libertarian's commitment to libertarianism itself."
    Related Topics: Walter Block, Lew Rockwell
    Libertarian moment or movement?, by Robert J. Cihak, Michael A. Glueck, 24 Jan 2003
    Two months before the 2003 Iraq invasion, presents the views of Robert Higgs and David Theroux as to whether the libertarian movement can have "a major role to play in post-9/11 America"
    "Libertarianism has long been 'the other white meat' of a political system in which both liberals and conservatives prefer beef - and, in the classic usage of the term, pork - and both in quantity. ... But the libertarian movement at its best has functioned as an incubator of ideas that, one way or another, find their themselves in the political mainstream. So far, their best work has been in economics and law. But there's no inherent reason why, sooner or later, the libertarian critique of the welfare/warfare state, and their perspective on the perils of the 21st century, shouldn't enter the realm of the commonly known."
    Libertarians of Will, Intellect, and Action, by Murray Rothbard, 1977
    Keynote address to the Libertarian Party Convention
    "To be truly 'born again,' the libertarian must experience what we might call a second baptism, the 'baptism of will.' ... In short, the truly complete libertarian, the 'born again' libertarian, if you will, is not content with recognizing the truth of liberty as the best social system; he cannot and will not rest content until that system, that set of principles, has triumphed in the world of reality."
    Libertarian Voters and the Libertarian Party, by David Boaz, 23 May 2008
    Discusses the 2008 Libertarian Party presidential candidate nominees, the views of libertarian-leaning voters and the prospects for the LP
    "Some 15 to 20 percent of the voters — 18 million to 24 million voters in 2004 — hold libertarian views. Those libertarian voters have previously demonstrated their willingness to vote for third-party candidates ... Perhaps most strikingly, 44 percent of voters said yes to Zogby’s question, "Would you describe yourself as fiscally conservative and socially liberal, also known as libertarian?" So there would seem to be a huge potential audience for a Libertarian candidate who could raise money, get media attention, create online buzz, and present a compelling and articulate case for peace, freedom, and limited government."
    Meeting Murray Rothbard On the Road to Libertarianism, by Jeff Riggenbach, 4 Jan 2003
    Riggenbach recounts his path from an advocate of Ayn Rand's objectivism, later reading LeFevre and attending his lectures to reading Rothbard's "The Anatomy of the State" and eventually meeting and being able to have many conversations with him
    "I took my first steps down the road to libertarianism during my junior year in high school (1962–1963), when ... I read Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged ... Looking back, I realize now that my earlier enthusiasms ... though they taught me much, were really just way stations along a road that would eventually lead to a fully coherent and systematic grasp of both libertarianism itself and its implications for the humanities and social sciences. The thinker who finally provided me with the basic elements of that sort of understanding of libertarianism, I have belatedly come to realize, was Murray N. Rothbard."
    Michael Badnarik Thinks You're a Libertarian: Texas' Other Presidential Candidate Talks to the Dig, by Joe Keohane, Weekly Dig, 30 Jun 2004
    Quotes from and commentary on Badnarik based on an interview with a reporter of a Boston weekly newspaper
    "Warm reception aside, Badnarik continually will be forced to confront ... the most unpleasant non-monetary reality for any Lib candidate: the fact that many voters in America, like young Michael Badnarik, have no idea what on earth a Libertarian is. "We believe in individual rights," he explains. "We believe in private property ... we strongly support personal responsibility. Yes, you can make your own decisions, but you must then be responsible for those decisions ... and that is a message that resonates with people. I think people are prepared for a presidential candidate that actually knows the Constitution.""
    Module 12: The Modern Quest for Liberty
    Last module of the Cato Home Study Course, includes link to listen or download audio program (3:03:35), questions and suggested readings
    "The final module of the Cato University curriculum examines the rebirth of libertarian thought from the 1940s onward. ... The publication in 1943 of books by three American writers, Rose Wilder Lane (The Discovery of Freedom), Isabel Paterson (The God of the Machine), and Ayn Rand (The Fountainhead), all extolling the creativity of the free and responsible individual, and in 1944 of books by the Austrian economists Ludwig von Mises (Omnipotent Government) and F. A. Hayek (The Road to Serfdom), both warning of the dangers of statism, helped to launch the modern libertarian movement."
    Related Topic: Mont Pelerin Society
    Mont Pelerin: 1947-1978, The Road to Libertarianism, by Ralph Raico, Libertarian Review, Dec 1979
    Reviews the presentations and discussions at the 1978 meeting of the Mont Pelerin Society, with an overview of the Society's history and particularly the 1958 meeting which had similar themes
    "One of the most interesting aspects of the 1978 Mont Pelerin meeting was the speakers’ widespread use of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism' to describe the Mont Pelerin society and its members. ... Indeed, a major event at the Mont Pelerin meeting was a special session on the libertarian movement around the world. Altogether, the extensive interest in libertarianism at the Mont Pelerin meeting and the intensive enthusiasm of the younger participants for an active libertarian movement was one of the clearest ramifications of the Hong Kong meeting."
    Murray, Charles (1943-), by Brian Doherty, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical and bibliographical essay
    "Murray wrote a popular summation of the libertarian position he had come to embrace over his decades of research in the social sciences. In What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation, he presents a minimal-government libertarian vision, explaining why he thinks all government regulation of business should be eliminated. ... Murray summed up his libertarian views in the following language: 'Libertarianism is a vision of how people should be able to live their lives—as individuals, striving to realize the best they have within them; together, cooperating for the common good without compulsion. ...'"
    Murray N. Rothbard: Mr. Libertarian, by Wendy McElroy, 6 Jul 2000
    A tribute to Rothbard as a "system builder," an integrator of multiple disciplines into a "philosophy of freedom"; examines several of Rothbard's essays and books
    "... it is no exaggeration to say that Rothbard created the modern libertarian movement. Specifically, he refined and fused together:
    • natural law theory, using a basic Aristotelian or Randian approach;
    • the radical civil libertarianism of 19th century individualist-anarchists, especially Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker;
    • the free market philosophy of Austrian economists, in particular Ludwig von Mises, into which he incorporated sweeping economic histories; and,
    • the foreign policy of the American Old Right – that is, isolationism.
    As a result of the fusion, libertarianism blossomed in the '60s ..."
    Murray, the LP, and Me, by David Bergland, 25 Dec 2002
    Lengthy autobiographical essay, focusing on Rothbard, libertarianism and the LP; part of Walter Block's Autobiography Archive
    "Some of us are simply more temperamentally suited to liberty than others. We are comfortable with anarchy, the unknowable future, and whatever spontaneous order might develop out of freedom’s chaos. We don't feel insecure in the absence of a state-created social safety net and we welcome the opportunities that maximum liberty brings. ... As with many libertarians, Atlas was one Aha! experience after another for me. ... Another positive influence was the local newspaper, the Santa Ana Register, published by R.C. Hoiles, about as hardcore a libertarian as one could find."
    Neither Bullets nor Ballots [PDF], by Wendy McElroy, The Voluntaryist, Oct 1982
    First editorial, describing the two major goals of The Voluntaryist, namely, to construct a theory of voluntaryism and to examine non-political strategies
    "The Voluntaryist is unique in that it reflects both the several centuries of libertarian tradition and the current cutting edge of libertarian theory. The tradition of American libertarianism is so inextricably linked with anarchism that, during the Nineteenth Century, individualist-anarchism was a synonym for libertarianism. But anarchism is more than simply the non-initiation of force by which libertarianism is commonly defined. .. If libertarianism has a future, it is as the movement which takes a principled, resounding stance against the State."
    New Zealand's New Zealots, by R. W. Bradford, Liberty, Mar 1997
    Examines the two New Zealand political parties with libertarian tendencies—the Association of Consumers and Taxpayers (ACT) and the Libertarianz, including the animosity between them
    "If by 'libertarian,' we mean a person who favors radically reducing the power of government, then it is safe to say that libertarians are vastly more influential and prominent in New Zealand than in the United States. ... Roger Douglas has proven himself the most effective libertarian politician of this century. He is unique among political leaders [effecting] a genuine reduction in the power of government in a Western democratic country. ... In 1994, [Perigo] launched The Free Radical, a delightful political magazine publishing a variety of libertarian thinking ... In 1995, he found financial backing for a national libertarian radio network ..."
    Related Topics: New Zealand, Objectivism
    One Moral Standard for All, by Sheldon Richman, 15 Nov 2013
    Postulate that most nonlibertarians agree that initiation of force is wrong, but they have to be shown that the same moral standard should hold for private individuals and government personnel
    "If I can't legally impose mandates on people, as the Affordable Care Act does, why can Barack Obama and members of Congress do so? If I can't forcibly forbid you to use marijuana or heroin or cocaine, why can DEA agents do it? Those officials are human beings. You are a human being. I am a human being. So we must have the same basic rights. Therefore, what you and I may not do, they may not do."
    On Political Activism, by Samuel Edward Konkin III, Reason, May 1977
    Letter to the editor, criticising John Hospers' view that running for political office as part of the Libertarian Party is "the quickest way of getting libertarian ideas known to millions"
    "To the extent that libertarianism is known in North America today, it is almost entirely because of the tireless work of a few educators, activists, and persons of prominence not afraid to be associated with a small, militant, and unpopular movement: Murray Rothbard, Robert LeFevre, Andrew J. Galambos, Leonard Read, Ludwig von Mises, Don Ernsberger, Dana Rohrabacher, Isabel Patterson, Rose Wilder Lane, Baldy Harper, all the persons of accomplishment I named earlier, many local activists reaching 10 or 20 or 30 people at a time with meetings, demonstrations, events being seriously covered in local papers on a recurring basis ..."
    Related Topic: Libertarian Party
    On the Origins of the Modern Libertarian Legal Movement [PDF], by Roger Pilon, Chapman Law Review, 2013
    Historical survey of libertarian influences on constitutional and other areas of law, from the mid-1970s to recent decisions
    "The growing influence of the modern libertarian legal movement in America and beyond was no better illustrated recently than during the two-year run-up to the Supreme Court's 'Obamacare' decision .... Marginalized for years by many conservatives—to say nothing of the long dominant liberal establishment that dismissed their arguments out of hand—libertarians offered a principled vision that resonated not only with judges ... but with a large part of the American public as well—and, in the end, with a majority on the High Court itself. And why not: The vision was grounded in the nation's First Principles."
    Pathetic Arguments for Foreign Intervention, by Sheldon Richman, 25 Jan 2008
    Discusses comments made by Bret Stephens of the Wall Street Journal about Ron Paul's call for U.S. withdrawal from the Middle East
    "Is he serious? Libertarians make no accounting for people motivated by the desire to dominate? If that were true we wouldn't work so hard to minimize government power. When will interventionists realize that their plans for protecting us from bad guys abroad require the placement of awesome corrupting power in the hands of politicians here? 'There is a not-incidental connection here between libertarianism and pacifism,' he writes. Leave it to an interventionist to think that the opposite of imperialism is pacifism."
    Related Topics: Government, Imperialism
    Paul's Apology: Say it ain't so, Dr. No, by Jacob Sullum, Reason, 16 Jan 2008
    Examines Ron Paul's record, the controversy over the newsletters published under Paul's name in the 1980s and 1990s, and Paul's response
    "Given his association with 'paleolibertarians' such as Lew Rockwell who sought to construct an anti-statist coalition partly by appealing to racial resentments, he owes his supporters more than accepting 'moral responsibility' for inadequately overseeing the newsletters ... since the value of the Paul campaign lies in promoting the libertarian ideals of limited government, individual freedom, and tolerance, the real problem is that the newsletters contradict this message. On CNN Paul emphasized that racist libertarian is an oxymoron, since libertarians judge people as individuals."
    Related Topic: Ron Paul
    Peace and Pacifism, by Robert Higgs, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Reviews what prominent classical liberals and libertarians had to say on the subject of peace and war, as well as the history of United States wars from the War of 1812 to the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the efforts of those who opposed them
    "Modern libertarianism has deep roots in classical liberalism, an ideology that looks at war as a reactionary undertaking at odds with the social progress that springs, in large part, from the unhampered movement of goods, capital, and labor across national borders and from international scientific and cultural cooperation. Moreover, libertarians strongly support individualism, which flourishes during peacetime, but clashes with the collectivism, regimentation, and herd mentality that war fosters. They favor reduction in the size, scope, and power of government, an objective that cannot be attained during wartime."
    Persuasion vs. Force, by Mark Skousen, Liberty, Sep 1991
    Based on an essay by Alfred North Whitehead, Skousen suggests a new libertarian creed, "The triumph of persuasion over force is the sign of a civilized society"
    "In the true spirit of libertarianism, Voltaire once said, 'I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.' If we are to be effective in convincing others of a libertarian world, we must take the moral high ground by saying, 'We may disapprove of what you do, but we will defend to the death your right to do it.' In short, my vision of a libertarian society is one in which we discourage evil, but do not prohibit it. ... If we don't like violence and sex on TV, we don't write the Federal Communications Commission, we join boycotts of the advertiser's products."
    Philosophy the Right Way, by Aaron Ross Powell, 21 Mar 2013
    Discusses how some people reject a philosopher or political theory solely because they disagree with some aspect of the thinker or the arguments given and counsels in favor of keeping a broad mind and learning even from those with whom you may disagree
    "Those people are defining 'libertarian' to mean only the kind of libertarianism they prefer. Now, it may well be the case that one form of libertarianism—Rothbardian anarcho-capitalism or Randian minimal statism or Hayekian classical liberalism—is ultimately better than the rest. And that's an argument we should have. But it's definitely not a settled one ... As Rothbard himself said, 'Both the minarchists and the anarchists agree on rolling back about 99% of the state, so why not do that and then worry about the other 1% after we get it?'"
    Related Topics: Learning, Philosophy
    Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement, by David Gordon, The Mises Review, Dec 2007
    Review of Brian Doherty's Radicals for Capitalism
    "In undertaking a survey of libertarianism, two divergent approaches suggest themselves. One can adopt a particular view of correct libertarian doctrine. A certain variety of libertarianism, e.g., Rothbardian anarchism, can be taken as 'libertarianism rightly so called': other varieties will be assessed by the extent of their deviations from the favored position. One might, by contrast, confine oneself to a description of all the various sorts of views that claim to be libertarian. Here only points that all, or nearly all, self-professed libertarians accept will be deemed essential to the concept of libertarianism."
    Rand, Ayn (1905-1982), by Chris Matthew Sciabarra, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Despite her antipathy to this anarchic brand of libertarianism, however, Rand profoundly inspired a generation of individuals to pursue the goal of a libertarian society. Some of her closest followers ... have challenged contemporary politics from without, forming such organizations as the Cato Institute, the Reason Foundation, and the Libertarian Party. Various aspects of the position she put forward have found their way into the works of libertarian-minded academic philosophers, among them Douglas Den Uyl, John Hospers, Tibor Machan, Eric Mack, Douglas Rasmussen, David Kelley, and Tara Smith."
    Reading the Literature of Liberty, by Roy Childs, May 1987
    Childs' selection of "great books", including works by Hazlitt, Bastiat, Rose Wilder Lane, Nock, Ayn Rand, Friedman, Hayek, Rothbard, Mises and Nozick
    "Libertarianism is first and foremost the doctrine championing individual freedom, private property, unfettered capitalism, and free trade. As such, it has never been captured fully in any one book or essay. As a doctrine, it lies scattered throughout the pages of countless books and articles; as a point of view, it has many variations. ... Murray Rothbard['s] manifesto For a New Liberty sets out his own version of the principles of libertarianism, and proceeds to look at one problem area after another. ... Thousands of people have found this an excellent overview of libertarianism."
    Regime Libertarians, by Lew Rockwell, 12 Jul 2005
    Criticizes the "Iraq Exit Strategy: America's Path Forward" proposal, made by the Libertarian National Committee on 29 June 2005, and suggests the name "Regime Libertarians" for those who make that kind of proposals
    "A good name for this school of thought is Regime Libertarianism. The modifier identifies the means they choose to bring about their view of what constitutes freedom. It identifies the target audience of their urgings and pleadings. It identifies the institution that they believe to be the first condition in the advance of civilization. ... Regime Libertarianism stands in contrast to another school we might call Laissez-Faire Libertarianism. This is the view that the one and only job of government is to withdraw, wholly and completely, not just from one sector but all of them, and ... right now."
    Reverence for Skeptics, by Leland B. Yeager, Liberty, Oct 2007
    Describes how Prof. Yeager albeit raised as Christian became what he calls a "reverent atheist" and discusses the bases for his views; includes relevant Baloo cartoon and bibliography
    "Libertarianism is a doctrine or attitude about social and economic organization and policy. It is tolerant of diverse grounds for accepting it. It does not require theological roots and could even be embarrassed by insistence on them. ... I have reached the judgment that a free-market economy offers better prospects for human happiness than socialism does. New evidence and argument could conceivably change my mind, but that possibility does not require my declaring myself agnostic on the issue of capitalism versus socialism."
    Related Topic: Atheism
    Rights Violations Aren't the Only Bads, by Sheldon Richman, 17 Jan 2014
    Discusses criticism of "Intellectual Property Fosters Corporate Concentration" in the larger context of rights violations
    "What I'm arguing for is a commonsense category of noninvasive moral offenses, wrongful acts that do not involve force. ... forced-backed remedies are not the only — or even the best — remedies available. Nonviolent responses, including boycotts, shunning, and gossip, can be highly effective. Libertarians ought to beware of embracing such a narrow view of morality that only forceful invasions of persons and property are deserving of moral outrage and response. Think of all the cruel ways people can treat others without lifting a hand. Are we to remain silent in the face of such abuse?"
    Robert A. Heinlein's Soaring Spirit of Liberty, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jul 1997
    Biographical essay, including multiple quotes from fellow authors and significant excerpts from Heinlein's novels and stories
    "In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress (1966), Heinlein offers perhaps his most well-developed libertarian vision. ... The moon, referred to as Luna, is a colony of the Earth which uses it as a place to keep convicts and political dissidents. They resent the Earth's trade monopoly, which means selling Earth products at steep prices, buying Luna products for little—and ultimately starving people on Luna. They don't like laws, but they respect customs. They cherish individual initiative and enterprise. They tolerate other people's lifestyle choices and mind their own business. ...'"
    Robert Nozick and the Value of Liberty, by Aaron Ross Powell, 21 Jun 2011
    Responds to Stephen Metcalf's essay "The Liberty Scam", published on
    "Like so many critics of libertarianism, Metcalf does not understand the scope of the libertarian argument. I value liberty, yes, but I also value my health, my daughter's happiness, and films staring William Powell and Myrna Loy. In fact, libertarians, progressives, and even Robert Nozick value quite a lot of things. The libertarian argument is simply that a state that attempts to directly maximize any value besides liberty—by, say, coercively taxing in order to pay for more Thin Man films—violates individual rights. What's more, if the state does remain limited to protecting only liberty, we'll get more health, happiness, and great movies."
    Robert Nozick, Philosopher of Liberty, by Roderick T. Long, The Freeman, Sep 2002
    Focuses mainly on Nozick's contributions in Anarchy, State, and Utopia, with brief reference to his later works and his death earlier in 2002
    "Twenty-eight years ago a Harvard philosophy professor named Robert Nozick did something unthinkable in polite intellectual society: he published a book defending libertarianism. In 1974 libertarian ideas had virtually no presence within the academic establishment. ... Nozick's book did not, of course, convert the profession; but it secured for libertarianism a place among the standard topics for philosophical discussion, and thereby contributed to a crucial change in the intellectual climate."
    Rockwell on Libertarianism, by Lew Rockwell, Jedrzej Kuskowski, 20 Apr 2007
    Interview by Jedrzej Kuskowski for the Polish libertarian website Liberalis; topics discussed include libertarianism, the Internet, movement leaders, the State, Ron Paul, the Libertarian Party, left-libertarians, Milton Friedman, immigration and Poland
    "Libertarians can draw from the right and the left but we finally must chart our own course, though there is nothing wrong with praising a non-libertarian thinker for being correct on a certain issue. ... I've noticed a general tendency here. When the right is in control, the left looks better to libertarians. When the left is in control, the right looks better. We are all generally drawn to the merits of the people who are not in power! So it is hardly surprising to see a rise of 'left libertarians' in a time when the chief threat to liberty comes from the right, that is, from the red-state fascists ..."
    Related Topics: Milton Friedman, Poland, The State
    Ron Paul's Goldwater Moment, by Justin Raimondo, 11 May 2007
    Critiques Washington-centric "conventional wisdom" about Ron Paul's presidential candidacy
    "The truth is that libertarians are hardly the most organized group on the planet: getting them to act in concert is like herding cats. ... I have a very hard time believing that libertarians have gotten it together enough to pull off such online stunts, which would take thousands of participants and a central authority which is conspicuous by its absence in the movement. ... Back when I was in the Libertarian Party, in the 1970s and 80s, more than half the party activists in California were employed in the then-embryonic computer industry. The libertarian ethos of the internet has been widely remarked on ..."
    Rothbard, Murray (1926-1995), by Brian Doherty, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical and bibliographical essay
    "In 1973, Rothbard published For a New Liberty, a manifesto of libertarianism. That book presented an overview of his complete political vision, explaining how a strictly rights-based anarchist society could function and still meet all the social needs that are now met by government, from roads to defense to justice. (Rothbard credited the 19th-century Belgian author Gustave de Molinari as the intellectual father of this individualist anarchist view, which encompassed justice and defense.) Rothbard rejected Mises's utilitarian ethics as an insufficient basis for a consistent libertarianism."
    Samuel Edward Konkin III, by Jeff Riggenbach, 29 Jul 2010
    Biographical essay; including examination of Konkin's ideas on the Counter-Economy; transcript of "The Libertarian Tradition" podcast of 20 July 2010
    "The 1970s and '80s were a heady time in the history of the modern libertarian movement. The movement had just experienced a massive increase in population, virtually all at once. ... Suddenly mainstream publishers were interested in issuing new, hardcover books about libertarianism. In 1970, from Bobbs-Merrill, came Radical Libertarianism by Jerome Tuccille. In 1973 came The Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman and For a New Liberty by Murray N. Rothbard and How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World by Harry Browne."
    UpdSouth Park Libertarians: Trey Parker and Matt Stone on liberals, conservatives, censorship, and religion, by Nick Gillespie, Jesse Walker, Reason, Dec 2006
    Transcript of conversation with Trey Parker and Matt Stone, at Reason's August 2006 conference, in Amsterdam, on the future of free expression and free markets in Europe
    "Stone: ... we never set out to do a libertarian show.
    Reason: When you say libertarian, what do you mean?
    Stone: I had Birkenstocks in high school. I was that guy. And I was sure that those people on the other side of the political spectrum were trying to control my life. And then I went to Boulder and got rid of my Birkenstocks immediately, because everyone else had them and I realized that these people over here want to control my life too. I guess that defines my political philosophy. If anybody's telling me what I should do, then you've got to really convince me that it's worth doing."
    Speaking to Nonlibertarians, by Sheldon Richman, 11 Jul 2014
    Suggests an approach by which libertarians can try to persuade others of the benefits of freed markets
    "... people’s attraction to government-provided social services is not the problem (they believe they pay for them through taxes), because similar services offered in the voluntary sector (for-profit or mutual) would be not only unobjectionable but salutary. ... the libertarian approach should focus on the flawed political method by which the services are provided, not the purported objects of the services themselves — security."
    Related Topic: Government
    UpdSubstance, not style, by Daniel Koffler, 9 Feb 2008
    Contrasts several of presidential candidate Obama's issue positions with those of Hillary Clinton and argues his approach could be called left-libertarianism
    "Obama and Goolsbee propose something entirely different ... If this approach needs a name, call it left-libertarianism. Advancements in behavioural economics, public and rational choice theory, and game theory provide us with an opportunity to attend to inequality without crippling the economy, enhancing the coercive power of the state, or infringing on personal liberty (at least not to any extent greater than the welfare state already does; and as much as my libertarian friends might wish otherwise, the welfare state isn't going anywhere). The cost - higher marginal tax rates - is real ..."
    Sy Leon, R.I.P., by Butler Shaffer, 11 Sep 2007
    Recollections of the life of Seymour (Sy) Leon, Rampart College and the libertarian movement of the 1950s/1960s
    "These were the days when many were engaged in serious introspection and self-questioning. ... For those seeking a deeper understanding of liberty — instead of just a new religion — the quest took numerous paths. For some, there was a focus on 'what shall we call ourselves?,' as though a label conferred genuine insight. 'Individualists,' 'anarchists,' 'autarchists,' 'laissez-faire capitalists,' 'Objectivists,' 'libertarians,' and, later, 'anarcho-capitalists,' were some of the more common labels thrown out for consideration. My late friend, Jim Martin, even suggested 'me-ist' for consideration."
    Tackling Straw Men Is Easier than Critiquing Libertarianism, by Sheldon Richman, 5 Dec 2014
    Counters John Edward Terrell's critique of libertarianism using quotes from Adam Smith, Vernon Smith and Herbert Spencer
    "What people like Terrell don't realize — or perhaps realize too well — is that the fundamental point in dispute is not whether the individual is a social animal or a creature best suited for an atomistic existence. No libertarian I know of subscribes to the latter notion. The point in dispute is whether proper social life should be founded on peaceful consensual cooperation or on compulsion."
    Test your freedom IQ, The Orange County Register, 18 Jun 2006
    20 multiple-choice questions covering the role of government, free enterprise, taxes, property rights, free speech, religion, civil liberties, transportation, war and foreign policy, the Nanny State, gun ownership, education and immigration
    "Are you a rock-solid freedom lover, a closet authoritarian or an in-your-face socialist? Take the Register's first Freedom Quiz and see. It's devised with new graduates in mind, to help them understand their political philosophy as they head out into the real world or back into the not-so-real world of academia. Register editorial writers Alan Bock, John Seiler and Steven Greenhut developed these questions to highlight aspects of 'small l' libertarianism, the freedom philosophy that animates our pages."
    The Antimilitarist Libertarian Heritage, by Sheldon Richman, 19 Sep 2014
    Reviews writings by Herbert Spencer, "Government Colonization" and "Patriotism", on the subjects of war, militarism, colonization and patriotism
    "With the United States on the verge of another war in the Middle East ... we libertarians need to reacquaint ourselves with our intellectual heritage of peace, antimilitarism, and anti-imperialism. This rich heritage is too often overlooked and frequently not appreciated at all. ... Libertarianism, to say the least, is deeply skeptical of state power. Of course, then, it follows that libertarianism must be skeptical of the state's power to make war — to kill and destroy in other lands. ... (In 1901 a libertarian, Frederic Passy ... shared in the first Nobel Peace Prize.)"
    Related Topics: Imperialism, Herbert Spencer
    The Critical Dilemma Facing Pro-War Libertarians, by Jacob Hornberger, 14 Feb 2007
    Discusses the contradictions faced by U.S. libertarians and conservatives who endorsed or encouraged imperial and interventionist foreign policies
    "... libertarians hewed to a consistent philosophy — one that did not cause the libertarian to war against himself through a commitment to contradictory principles. Genuinely believing in a free society — a society based on free markets, private property, and limited government — libertarians have always favored the repeal, not the reform, of such socialist and interventionist programs as public (i.e., government) schooling, Medicare, Medicaid, income taxation, the drug war, and economic regulations."
    The Death of Politics, by Karl Hess, Playboy, Mar 1969
    Discusses libertarianism, contrasting it with both conservatism and modern liberalism, including specific policy differences
    "... the radical-revolutionary position is a lonely one. It is feared and hated, by both right and left — although both right and left must borrow from it to survive. The radical-revolutionary position is libertarianism ... Libertarianism is rejected by the modern left — which preaches individualism but practices collectivism. Capitalism is rejected by the modern right — which preaches enterprise but practices protectionism."
    The essence of liberty: What is it that really makes one a libertarian?, by David Nolan, Libertarian Party News, Mar 1995
    Discusses five points of "no compromise" that Nolan considered essential to libertarianism
    "First and foremost, libertarians believe in the principle of self-ownership. ... Libertarians yield to no one in their support for our right as individuals to keep and bear arms. ... libertarians believe that individuals have the right to own and use anything-gold, guns, marijuana, sexually explicit material-so long as they do not harm others through force or the threat of force. ... In an ideal world, there would be no taxation. ... all libertarians oppose any form of income tax. ... The fifth and final key test of anyone's claim to being a libertarian is their support for an honest money system ..."
    The Experimental Economist: Nobel laureate Vernon Smith takes markets places they've never been before, by Vernon L. Smith, Nick Gillespie, Michael W. Lynch, Reason, 9 Oct 2002
    Topics discussed include law (discovered vs. formally made), experimental economics, electric power, demand-interrupt pricing, airport landing and takeoff slots, NASA missions, libertarianism and economics
    "For me, libertarianism is tied to a certain set of recognitions: that all organizations have the problem of decentralized information, that decentralized mechanisms are the best way to organize that information to produce good outcomes, and that the best results come when the individual is free to make his or her own tradeoffs while aggregating information. That's true whether we're talking about politics or economics or even social interaction. The best systems maximize the freedom of the individual, subject to the constraint of others in the system."
    The Indivisibility of Liberty, by Mary Ruwart, 23 Apr 2008
    Discusses how advocating that others be deprived of some liberties results in negative repercussions on our own liberties
    "... I cringe when some well-meaning individuals, even those who call themselves libertarian, insist that society is better off when we deprive a select few of liberty. They just don't understand. ... To be for liberty, you must be for it consistently, respecting the lives of others in all matters. You cannot make an exception for the War on Terror ... the War on Poverty ... the War on Drugs. You cannot make an exception for gays or prostitutes. You can't let bureaucrats deny dying patients life-saving medicine just because the FDA hasn't yet approved it. You can't take another's money or land and give it to another."
    Related Topics: War on Drugs, Liberty
    The Inherently Humble Libertarian, by Sheldon Richman, 13 Feb 2015
    Defends libertarianism from those who charge its advocates of "know-it-allness"
    "To put it succinctly, libertarianism has humility baked in at the most fundamental level. Humility is not to be conflated with radical doubt, however. One can be humble while also believing it is possible to know things. And some things, including the nature and market implications of human action, can be known conceptually. One can know, for example, that intelligently planning an economy or even a particular market is beyond anyone's, including one's own, capacities."
    The Invisible Gnomes and the Invisible Hand: South Park and Libertarian Philosophy, by Paul Cantor, 4 Dec 2006
    Includes detailed review and discussion of season 2 "Gnomes" episode
    "Libertarianism is a philosophy of radical freedom, and particularly celebrates the free market as a form of social organization. ... With its support for unconditional freedom in all areas of life, libertarianism defies categorization in terms of the standard one-dimensional political spectrum of right and left."
    Related Topics: Capitalism, South Park
    The Justice and Prudence of War: Toward A Libertarian Analysis, by Roderick T. Long, Mises Daily, 20 Sep 2006
    Examines the ethics of war from a libertarian perspective, considering both deontological and consequentialist claims
    "Here I shall distinguish between libertarianism as a normative ethical theory — a theory of justice — and libertarianism as a descriptive social theory. Libertarians disagree with one another as to the extent of the former's dependence on the latter; utilitarian libertarians profess to believe the dependence total, while natural-rights libertarians profess to believe it nonexistent, but in practice both groups tend to treat the dependence as partial ..."
    The Libertarian Party Stays the Course, by Brian Doherty, Reason, 3 Jun 2004
    Detailed reporting and analysis of the 2004 Libertarian National Convention and the selection of Badnarik as the LP nominee
    "The exhibitor booths were a fair representation of what makes libertarian hearts sing: books on politics, economics, and philosophy, the Free State Project, public policy activist and education groups, and the Liberty Dollar. A one-sheet handed out by a seemingly bitter Liberty Dollar salesman complained that libertarians are less likely to embrace his privately minted silver and gold coins than an average American. (I suspect this is because many libertarians, already very sensitive about how they are perceived, are more likely to find alternative hard currency schemes too kooky to touch ...)"
    The Libertarian Press, by William Henry Longton (editor), Ronald Lora (editor), The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America, 1999
    Introduction to historical reviews of Freeman (1920-24), Freeman (1950-), analysis, New Individualist Review, Objectivist, Fragments and Libertarian Forum
    "Among the early leading lights of libertarian philosophy in America are Thomas Paine and nineteenth-century expositors Lysander Spooner, Josiah Warren, and Benjamin Tucker. With reservations, historians have added William Graham Sumner and Henry George to the list, for both social theorists exercised enormous influence on later proponents of radical individualism, among them Albert Jay Nock, Frank Chodorov, and economists Milton Friedman and Murray Rothbard. Economic theoreticians Friedriech Hayek and Ludwig von Mises often found themselves adjudged as libertarians, though 'free market liberal' seems a more apt description."
    Related Topic: Periodicals
    The Libertarians' Albatross, by Butler Shaffer, 3 Nov 2004
    Recounts Shaffer's introduction to objectivism and provides critical analysis of the philosophy's shortcomings, highlighting Objectivists support of the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars and the "war on terror" and disregard of innocent casualties
    "The modern 'libertarian' movement is the most focused philosophic expression of this undercurrent of change, for it is grounded not only in a distrust of power, but in the confidence that a free and peaceful social order can arise only out of the spontaneous and autonomous behavior of individuals. Libertarian thinking also reflects the pluralistic assumption that a condition of liberty will produce a variety of tastes, ideas, social practices, and behavior; and that only a respect for the inviolability of the lives and other property of individuals can produce such ends."
    The Libertarian Student Movement, by Caleb Brown, Wolf von Laer, Aaron Ross Powell, Free Thoughts, 17 Feb 2017
    Interview with Wolf von Laer, CEO of Students for Liberty, to discuss the status of the liberty movement on college campuses
    "Because Libertarianism is the only ideology which really trusts people. Because if you talk to both the left and the right, if it really goes down to something, why they want to impose their world view is because they think that people are stupid. Because they think they cannot govern themselves. We believe that people can actually do that. ... most people when they hear Libertarianism, it's things like, we are just like radical individualists who just want to fight for ourselves ... But no. We understand the value of community. We understand that complex social problems have to be addressed by complex institutions which are built of many, many people."
    The life and times of Murray N. Rothbard, who showed why private individuals can do just about everything that needs to be done, by Jim Powell
    Lengthy biographical essay
    "On February 9, 1971, the New York Times published Rothbard's op-ed article, 'The New Libertarian Creed,' which reported on the increasing numbers of young people who embraced individualism and liberty. He noted that these people were rebelling against the Vietnam War, military conscription, skyrocketing taxes, government intrusion into personal life and other violations of civil liberties. This op-ed attracted the attention of Tom Mandel, an editor at Macmillan which was a major publishing house, and soon Rothbard had his first commercial book contract. This became For a New Liberty, the Libertarian Manifesto (1973)."
    The Many Monopolies, by Charles W. Johnson, 24 Aug 2011
    Describes four ways in which markets are distorted by government interventions, explains Tucker's "Four Monopolies", examines five present-day monopolies and discusses Tucker's libertarian views
    "For most of the twentieth century American libertarians were seen as defenders of 'capitalism' ... Most libertarians ... seemed to agree that libertarianism meant defending business against the attacks of 'big government,' and the purpose of laissez faire was to unleash existing forms of commerce from political restraints. ... For Tucker, ... libertarianism meant an attack on economic privilege by removing the political privileges that propped it up, dismantling monopolies by exposing them to competition from below."
    The Myth of 19th-Century Laissez-Faire: Who Benefits Today?, by Roderick T. Long, 10 Jun 2013
    Responds to questions posed by Michael Lind and E. J. Dionne Jr. regarding lack of actual libertarian countries or the late 19th century supposedly small government utopia
    "Libertarianism is great for ordinary people, but not for the power elites that control countries and determine what policies they implement, and who don't welcome seeing their privileged status subjected to free-market competition. And ordinary people don't agitate for libertarian policies because most of them are not familiar with the full case for libertarianism's benefits, in large part because the education system is controlled by the aforementioned elites."
    Related Topic: Benjamin Tucker
    UpdThe Only Thing Dumber Than Libertarianism's Critics are its Right-Wing Defenders, by Kevin Carson, 22 Jun 2013
    Responds to question posed by Michael Lind regarding the lack of actual libertarian countries and an attempted rebuttal by Robert Tracinski
    "[Tracinski's] clear implication is that the main contemporary deviation from 100% libertarianism is the liberal welfare state ... Just take the existing model of corporate capitalism, subtract the regulatory-welfare state, and you get the libertarian utopia that prevailed in the Gilded Age. Well, not quite. ... So Lind is correct. There's not a single country in the world in which free and equal human beings can peacefully cooperate and share or exchange the product of their labor without an interventionist state. And so long as the interventionist state exists, there will never be economic and social justice."
    Related Topics: Democracy, The State
    The Political Compass & Why Libertarianism is Not Right-Wing, by Jan Clifford Lester, 1994
    Presents a Political Compass in contrast to the traditional left/right spectrum, with a north-south axis of Choice vs. (state) Control and a west-east axis of Personal and Property Choice, and a 20 question quiz to determine one's political bearing
    "Libertarianism (or extreme classical liberalism) is sometimes placed, often implicitly or vaguely, somewhere on the extreme right. But can we say whether it ought to be to the right or left of other ‘right-wing’ ideologies? How are we to indicate the extreme tolerance of personal choice (as regards drug use and consenting sexual practices, for instance) that libertarianism entails but which is not normally thought of as being right-wing? ... But now libertarians can, if necessary, practice tit-for-tat by lumping together non-libertarians as undifferentiated 'south-wingers' or 'authoritarians'."
    Related Topics: Marshall Fritz, David Nolan
    The Politics of Étienne de La Boétie, by Murray Rothbard, 1975
    Introduction to the 1975 edition of The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude, translated by Harry Kurz; summarises the key insights of La Boétie's work
    "In that task, La Boétie also speaks to us in his stress on the importance of a perceptive, vanguard elite of libertarian and antistatist intellectuals. The role of this 'cadre' — to grasp the essence of statism and to desanctify the State in the eyes and minds of the rest of the population — is crucial to the potential success of any movement to bring about a free society. It becomes, therefore, a prime libertarian task to discover, coalesce, nurture, and advance its cadre — a task of which all too many libertarians remain completely ignorant."
    The Roots of Modern Libertarian Ideas, by Brian Doherty, Cato Policy Report, Mar 2007
    Survey of the history of libertarian ideas, from ancient China and Greece to 20th century writers
    "Libertarianism has its basis in economic, moral, and political theory, rooted in ideas about how workable order can arise uncoordinated by a single controlling mind, how and where it is proper for a human to use force against another, and the likely dire effects of concentrated, unchecked power. But the element that distinguishes libertarianism's unique place in political thought is that it is radical, taking insights about order, justice, and the struggle between liberty and power further and deeper than most standard American liberals, patriots, or old-fashioned Jeffersonians."
    The State of the Movement [PDF], by Leonard Liggio, The Libertarian Forum, 15 May 1970
    Examines the history and status of the New Left movement, in particular of the Students for a Democratic Society and the involvement of libertarians and socialists in SDS
    "If numbers of libertarians had participated in this development there was every reason to expect that libertarian inclinations could have been clarified into a consistent libertarian philosophy. At the time Movement people hoped very much that libertarians would participate actively. But libertarians generally attacked the New Left and criticized the few libertarians who understood the importance of the Movement to the future growth of libertarianism and the importance of libertarianism to the future growth of the Movement. No libertarian can honestly criticize the Movement who has participated in it."
    Related Topics: Imperialism, Vietnam War
    The System Builder, by Roy Childs, 1974
    Foreword to the 1974 edition of Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays; compares Rothbard to Karl Marx as a "system builder" of anarchist thought
    "... in my view, the essay 'Left and Right: The Prospects for Liberty' is one of the most important essays ever penned. ... in just a few short pages, Rothbard presents the closest thing ... to a true libertarian manifesto comparable to The Communist Manifesto. Here is the entire libertarian worldview, the unique way of viewing history and world affairs ... For until Rothbard's work is carefully studied by every advocate of liberty, the value of his contributions to the libertarian system cannot be fully appreciated and, moreover, the unity and true historical context of libertarianism will not even be fully grasped."
    Related Topics: Anarchism, Murray Rothbard
    Two-dimensional libertarianism, by Anthony Gregory, Rational Review, 30 Sep 2004
    Questions the usefulness of the two-dimensional Nolan Chart and the World's Smallest Political Quiz and advocates instead a one-dimensional liberty vs. power spectrum
    "It might be useful to notice that conservatives and liberals tend to advocate certain liberties, which tend to fit in these somewhat distinguishable categories — but in the end it's arbitrary. What makes libertarians libertarians is that we recognize that all liberties relate to each other. ... we could actually be reinforcing the false idea in the minds of liberals and conservatives that their self-contradictory opinions are internally consistent ... Perhaps we should instead concentrate on showing them how it makes no sense to strongly believe in freedom on some issues, but strongly favor and trust state power on others."
    Two Libertarian Classics, by Murray Rothbard, Reason, Mar 1974
    Reviews of Albert Jay Nock's Our Enemy the State and John T. Flynn's As We Go Marching
    "Often equally scholarly, the radical libertarian sets forth with an air of determined hostility to the entire State apparatus, to the government and all its works. It is not just that the radical libertarian consistently opposes all government intervention whatever, so that one need not wait for the cost-benefit computer to come up with his political position on each particular issue. There is more to it than that—for the radical libertarian has a totally different viewpoint of the nature of the State itself."
    V for Vendetta, by Wendy McElroy, 31 Jul 2010
    Review of V for Vendetta (2006) both as a movie and as a political statement, comparing it to The Count of Monte Cristo (1934) (which is show in some scenes)
    "Perhaps the biggest reason to doubt V’s libertarianism is his own willingness to torture innocent people "in a good cause." He imprisons Evey and brutalizes her for days. When she is threatened with execution unless she betrays V, Evey chooses to die. At this point, V releases her and reveals the imprisonment as an elaborate ruse ... What distinguishes the imprisonment and torture by V from that committed by Norsefire? V's is purportedly "in a good cause"; it is noble torture performed for Evey's own good. Only if you accept the propriety of violating rights in a good cause ...can you view V as a libertarian torturer."
    Vince Miller and the International Libertarian Movement, by Jeff Riggenbach, 1 Jul 2010
    Biographical essay; including background information on the libertarian movement of the 20th century; transcript of "The Libertarian Tradition" podcast of 23 June 2010
    "... the libertarian movement ... founders were men and women who ranged in age from their 30s to their 60s. They represented ... two different generations. The first group, born in the 1880s, included Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson ... as well as Ludwig von Mises ... The members of this first group served as mentors and teachers for the members of the second group ... born around the turn of the 20th century ... Thus Mises was teacher to Friedrich Hayek ... as Paterson was teacher to Ayn Rand ... Leonard Read ... learned from both Lane and Mises, though at a distance, rather than close at hand."
    Voltairine de Cleyre: Penitent Priestess of Anarchism, by Jeff Riggenbach, 17 Jun 2010
    Biographical essay, transcript of "The Libertarian Tradition" podcast of 8 June 2010
    "The libertarian movement of today dates from the early 1940s, the period of US participation in World War II. It underwent a very sudden and very substantial spurt of growth during the late 1960s and early 1970s, and has grown steadily ever since. There was an earlier libertarian movement in the United States, however ... This 'first libertarian movement,' as the late Samuel Edward Konkin III used to like to call it, was largely [Benjamin R.] Tucker's creation, centered around his fortnightly paper Liberty, which he published from 1881 to 1908, and his book store, Benj. R. Tucker's Unique Book Shop ..."
    Was Robert A. Heinlein a Libertarian?, by Jeff Riggenbach, 2 Jun 2010
    Biographical essay, focused on attempting to answer the title question; transcript of "The Libertarian Tradition" of 18 May 2010
    "In the early 1970s, according to a survey undertaken at the time by SIL, the Society for Individual Liberty, one libertarian activist in six had been led to libertarianism by reading the novels and short stories of Robert A. Heinlein. Among the prominent libertarians of the late 20th Century who have named Heinlein as an important influence on the development of their own political thinking were Dave Nolan (the founder of the Libertarian Party) and the late Samuel Edward Konkin III. But was Heinlein a libertarian? There certainly are libertarian ideas in some of his books."
    We Need an Angel Like Clarence, by Lew Rockwell, Mises Daily, 28 Dec 2006
    Attempts to counter the despair felt by some in the freedom movement by examining, by example, the "unseen" benefits of libertarian activism over the past century
    "So should libertarian activists be doing something else with their time? ... We need to look at the statism that we do not experience, and what the world would be like if it weren't for the efforts of libertarians. ... Libertarian ideology, in all its forms, has literally saved the world from the state, which always and everywhere wants to advance and never roll back. If it does not advance and if it does roll back (however rarely), it is to the credit of public ideology. ... Libertarian ideas are like stones dropping into water, which make waves in so many directions that no one is sure where they come from."
    Related Topics: Liberty, Prohibition, The State, War
    What an Honest Conversation about Race Would Look Like, by Sheldon Richman, 19 Jul 2013
    Argues that government policies, such as drug prohibition, gun control and mandatory schooling, are enablers for racism
    "... things like the war on certain drug manufacturers, merchants, and consumers; the crusade against 'illegal' guns; the minimum wage and related laws; and the government's schools. All of these by far take their greatest toll on people of color. Private racism, whether violent or nonviolent, is evil and abhorrent; it is also unlibertarian — yes, even nonviolent racism is unlibertarian, as I point out in 'Libertarianism = Anti-Racism.'"
    What Are Libertarians Out to Accomplish?, by Sheldon Richman, 23 Jan 2015
    Reviews a Nathaniel Branden speech, given at the 1979 Libertarian Party national convention, about the manner in which libertarians communicate with non-libertarians
    "Branden was appealing to libertarians to be ruthlessly honest with themselves about why they were activists. If the reason was something other than achieving a free society through persuasion, then self-examination would be in order. If one's motives were mixed, then introspection might identify why one engaged in self-sabotage ... He urged us to ask ourselves explicitly what we are trying to achieve when we talk to nonlibertarians, most of whom are actually at least half libertarians. Are we trying to win people over or merely trying to feel good about ourselves, to feel more righteous than thou, or to display our erudition?"
    What It Means to Be a Libertarian [PDF], by Randolph J. May, Cato Journal, 1997
    Review of Charles Murray's book What It Means to Be a Libertarian, contrasting it with Tocqueville's writings in Democracy in America
    "The fact that Tocqueville laid the libertarian groundwork over a century and a half ago does not diminish Murray's own considerable present achievement. His What It Means to Be a Libertarian sets forth in plain and simple English a passionate call for a reduced role for government in our everyday lives. Murray's hope, in my view well-grounded in logic and Tocquevillian understanding of human nature, is that such a reduced government role will spur a rebirth of civic engagement that not only will benefit the objects of such engagement but, as important, will help those so engaged lead more satisfying lives because of the decisions they have made freely about how to live their lives."
    What Should Libertarians Do?, by Sheldon Richman, 25 Apr 2014
    Examines what libertarianism requires of people, e.g., an understanding of economics, and suggests focusing on the liberal insight that "societies run themselves" spontaneously
    "Libertarians simultaneously ask little of people and a lot. We ask little when we preach nonaggression, because most people already practice nonaggression in their own lives. ... On the other hand, we ask a lot when we ask people to believe that free markets work. Most people know nothing about economics. Except in the most micro sense, they do not engage in the 'economic way of thinking.' ... The upshot is that most people have never heard of unplanned, undesigned, or spontaneous order. When they hear libertarians talking about markets unregulated by the state, they can't digest the idea."
    Why Liberty?, by R. W. Bradford, Doug Casey, Murray Rothbard, Liberty, 5 Jul 1987
    First (and only) editorial, discusses the three different kinds of existing libertarian periodicals, what areas and issues Liberty was going to address and who the founders were
    "Does the world really need another libertarian magazine? There already exists a variety of libertarian periodicals, ranging from local newsletters to national magazines, from personal 'zines' to scholarly journals. ... We propose to publish Liberty as a journal by libertarians for libertarians, a journal with the space and inclination to discuss issues that interest libertarians ... We seek a periodical that will discuss whatever interests the intelligent, thoughtful libertarian, without feeling any need to apologize for our beliefs or to placate non-libertarians."
    Related Topics: Libertarian Party, Periodicals
    Why I am a Libertarian, by Mark Richards, 21 May 2008
    Describes the persons (mainly his mother) and events that influenced him in becoming a libertarian
    "So here I was a young teenager in the late 1960s and I didn't like the liberal left that was manipulating the youth in America at that time but I also rejected the 'establishment' (the government and its allies in the media, public education, and the churches) which I knew was lying to the American people. It was through those John Birch Society publications that my mother had picked up at that country fair that I first became acquainted with economists and authors like Ayn Rand, Ludwig von Mises, Milton Friedman, F.A. Hayek, Henry Hazlitt, Murray Rothbard, and others who were proponents of the freedom philosophy."
    Why We Consent to Oppression: Self-suppression paves the way for political suppression, by Peter Breggin, Reason, Sep 1977
    Examines the questions posed by La Boétie in his "Discourse" from a psychological perspective, particularly how childhood self-suppression leads most adults to more easily accept government oppression
    "Libertarians tend not to take human attitudes toward each other into account when hoping for and planning for a more libertarian world. ... A libertarian society will thrive only when individuals are willing to value each other as human beings, even if they do not know or care for each other. It will thrive only when individuals are willing to value each other's freedom regardless of any gain or loss to themselves. Libertarianism will become a viable principle of society whenever men and women become willing to live by, and, if necessary, to fight for each other's liberty."
    Winning the Battle for Freedom and Prosperity, by John Mackey, Liberty, Jun 2006
    Updated from speech given at FreedomFest 2004; after a brief background on himself, Mackey criticises the freedom movement from a marketing and branding perspective and suggests a different approach by de-emphasising some issues and prioritising others
    "I stumbled into reading Milton Friedman, Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Ayn Rand — I read all of them. ... I identify myself as a Libertarian. I am one of those people who actually votes Libertarian. ... What I love most about the freedom movement are the ideas of voluntary cooperation and spontaneous order when channeled through free markets, leading to the continuous evolution and progress of humanity."


    Interview with the Vamp: Why Camille Paglia hates affirmative action, defends Rush Limbaugh, and respects Ayn Rand, by Camille Paglia, Virginia Postrel, Reason, Aug 1995
    Topics discussed include: NOW, affirmative action, the Clintons, libertarianism, capitalism, academic administrators, conservatives, Rush Limbaugh, television, Christina Hoff Sommers vs. Naomi Wolf, institutions, homosexuality, nostalgia and Ayn Rand
    "Reason: You also call yourself a libertarian. What do you mean by that?
    Paglia: I consider myself not a conservative libertarian but a radical '60s libertarian ... I believe that government should confine itself to the public realm and that it should be as stripped down as possible, within reason. It should not be burdened by excess bureaucracy. I feel that government has no right to intrude into the private realm of consensual behavior. Therefore, I say that I'm for the abolition of all sodomy laws. I'm for abortion rights. I'm for the legalization of drugs—consistent with alcohol regulations."
    Takings Exception: An Interview with Richard Epstein, by Richard Epstein, Steve Chapman, Reason, Apr 1995
    Topics include libertarian ideas, Epstein's book Takings, the public housing and inner city issues, and civil rights laws
    "I studied law in England. ... The only direction I got was being told to read the 19th-century judicial opinions. These 19th-century guys were all high-powered intellectuals who had strong libertarian views. So I read a huge amount of things which resonated with my own maverick instincts. ... There is the kind of libertarian universe in which every individual has property rights in his or her own name, and all individuals have the exclusive right to use and dispose of their possessions--land, capital, so forth. Coordinated behavior takes place only through voluntary exchanges."


    The Journal of Libertarian Studies, by Mises Institute
    "The Journal of Libertarian Studies (1977–2010) was founded by Murray N. Rothbard in 1977 and was the premiere venue for the advancement of liberterianism, anarcho-capitalism, the individualist society, and non-interventionism as the first principle of political theory and practice."


    For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, by Murray Rothbard, 1973
    Partial contents: The Libertarian Heritage - Property and Exchange - The State - The Problems - Involuntary Servitude - Personal Liberty - Education - Welfare and the Welfare State - The Public Sector - War and Foreign Policy - A Strategy for Liberty
    Related Topics: For a New Liberty, Liberty
    Libertarianism: A Primer
        by David Boaz, 1997
    Partial contents: The Coming Libertarian Age - The Roots of Libertarianism - What Rights Do We Have? - The Dignity of the Individual - Pluralism and Toleration - Law and the Constitution - Civil Society - The Market Process - The Libertarian Future
    Libertarianism in One Lesson: Why Libertarianism Is the Best Hope for America's Future
        by David Bergland, 1984
    Partial contents: The Nature of Government - The Alternative to Coercive Government - The Libertarian Difference - Libertarian Analysis of the Issues - Foreign Policy, Free Trade and National Defense - Taxation as Theft - What About the Poor People?
    The Great Libertarian Offer
        by Harry Browne, 2000
    Partial contents: A Libertarian America - How Government Operates - Do You Want Freedom or Symbolism? - Free from the Income Tax - Freedom to Make Your Own Choices - Freedom from War - Freedom to Learn - The Libertarian Path - Liberty in Your Lifetime
    The Libertarian Idea
        by Jan Narveson, 1989
    Partial contents: Liberalism, Conservatism, Libertarianism - Liberty: Negative versus Positive - Rights - Liberty and Property - Is Libertarianism Rational? - Intuitions in Moral Philosophy - Contractarianism to Libertarianism? - Society and the Market
    The Libertarian Reader: Classic and Contemporary Writings from Lao Tzu to Milton Friedman
        by David Boaz, 1997
    Includes essays by Bastiat, Cobden, Milton Friedman, Hayek, Jefferson, Locke, Mencken, Nozick, Thomas Paine, Ayn Rand, Rothbard, Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer, Lysander Spooner, Alexis de Tocqueville, Laozi, Ludwig von Mises and Mary Wollstonecraft
    Three Libertarian Essays
        by Daniel B. Klein, Foundation for Economic Education, 1998
    Contents: Go Ahead and Let Him Try: A Plea for Economic Laissez-Faire - Liberty, Dignity, and Responsibility: The Moral Triad of a Good Society - If Government is So Villainous How Come Government Officials Don't Seem Like Villains?
    Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism
        by Chris Matthew Sciabarra, 2000
    Partial Contents: Aristotle: The Fountainhead - From Aristotle to Hegel - After Hegel - Defining Dialectics - Foundations - The Market versus the State - Class Dynamics and Structural Crisis - On the Precipice of Utopia - The Dialectical Libertarian Turn
    What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation
        by Charles Murray, 1997
    Partial contents: I: The Framework - An Image of Limited Government - II: How Would It Work? - Removing Government from Economic Life - Removing Government from Civil Life - III: Is It Possible? - Government as "Them" - The Demand to Be Left Alone


    Dr. Demento, Walter Block and Robert Anton Wilson: Sex, Drugs, and Rock n' Roll, by Walter Block, Dr. Demento, Robert Anton Wilson, 5 Sep 1987
    Panel discussion at the 1987 Libertarian National Convention

    Freedom Matters,, 1 Nov 2011
    A 60 second introduction to libertarianism

    Karl Hess: Tools to Dismantle the State, by Karl Hess, Aug 1986
    Talk given at the Third Libertarian International World Convention, Stockholm; starts off by tracing truly important events in human history, then discussing ways in which libertarians can be "filthy stinking rich or creatively poor" and ends with Q&A

    Leonard Liggio on the Rise of the Modern American Libertarian Movement, by Jacob Hornberger, Leonard Liggio, 9 Mar 1995
    Talk given at Vienna Coffee Club (Future of Freedom Foundation). Liggio starts off with the New Deal and covers many events and individuals both at the core and the periphery of the modern libertarian movement

    Penn Jillette: Why I Am A Libertarian, by Penn Jillette, 21 Nov 2011

    Robert Anton Wilson and Karl Hess: Subversion for Fun and Profit, by Karl Hess, Robert Anton Wilson, Sep 1987
    Wilson and Hess at the Libertarian Party national convention, fielding questions from the audience on numerous topics

    Roy A. Childs, Jr.: The Radical Libertarian Vision, by Roy Childs, 11 Apr 1981
    Talk given at the Libertarian Party 10th Anniversary National Convention; Childs presents his vision of what the Party should be emphasizing and trying to accomplish

    Stephen Cox on Libertarian Literature and Prisons as Failed Planned Societies, by Stephen Cox, 20 Jun 2011
    Cox discusses The Woman and the Dynamo (his biography of Isabel Paterson), her book The God of the Machine, his book The Big House (about American prisons) and Liberty magazine
    Related Topic: Isabel Paterson

    Take It To The Limits: Milton Friedman on Libertarianism, by Milton Friedman, Uncommon Knowledge, 10 Feb 1999
    Friedman discusses with Peter Robinson about what is libertarianism, which government functions are legitimate and how libertarians look at issues of public safety, protecting the environment and the right size of government itself
    What Does It Mean To Be Libertarian?, by Steve Davies, 10 Aug 2011
    Discusses the subject question, including what policy positions can be considered libertarian and others where there may differences of opinion among libertarians
    "Libertarians believe that the most important thing in life is human flourishing ... They also argue that human beings are ultimately autonomous, self-defined, choosing individuals. ... Are there ... specific major questions or politics that really you have to take a certain position on if you are to be a consistent libertarian? ... you have to support free markets, you have to support free trade, you have to support the free movement of people, you have to support free speech, you have to support constitutional and limited government, you have to be opposed to coercive paternalism, and things of that sort."
    Related Topic: Voting


    The Cato Institute at 40, by Trevor Burrus, Peter Goettler, Aaron Ross Powell, 10 Mar 2017
    Interview with Peter Goettler, President and CEO of the Cato Institute since March 2015
    "Aaron Powell: ... One of the things that comes up when we're engaging with guests or when we get comments from people is libertarianism as a set of principles is a fairly broad concept. And, there are, we'll just say, there can be in fighting within libertarianism and disagreement about principles within libertarianism. You have the wide range of on the one hand the classical liberal, more moderate positions, and on the extreme other end you have your outright anarchists who all call themselves libertarian."