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Islands in southeast Asia, ruled since 1965 by the Xīnjiāpō Gònghéguó/Republic of Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is an island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Strait of Malacca to the west, the Singapore Strait to the south along with the Riau Islands in Indonesia, the South China Sea to the east, and the Straits of Johor along with the State of Johor in Malaysia to the north. The country's territory comprises one main island, 63 satellite islands and islets, and one outlying islet; the combined area of these has increased by approximately 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation projects. It has the second highest population density of any country in the world, although there are numerous green and recreational spaces as a result of urban planning. With a multicultural population and in recognition of the cultural identities of the major ethnic groups within the nation, Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. English is the lingua franca, with its exclusive use in numerous public services. Multi-racialism is enshrined in the constitution and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, and politics.

Geographical type: Territory

Latitude: 1.3° N — Longitude: 103.8° E

Area: 719 km²

ISO 3166-2 code: SG

Measures of Freedom

Economic Freedom Summary Index, Economic Freedom of the World, 19 Sep 2023
2021 Overall score: 8.56, Rank: 1
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2023: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil, and Economic Freedom
2021: 7.75, Rank: 44, Personal freedom: 7.17, Economic freedom: 8.56
Singapore: Freedom in the World 2024 Country Report, Freedom in the World 2024
2024: Status: Partly Free, Aggregate Score: 48/100, Political Rights: 19/40, Civil Liberties: 29/60
Singapore's parliamentary political system has been dominated by the ruling People's Action Party (PAP) and the family of current prime minister Lee Hsien Loong since 1959. The electoral and legal framework that the PAP has constructed allows for some political pluralism, but it constrains the growth of opposition parties and limits freedoms of expression, assembly, and association.


The Recipe for Singapore's Prosperity, by Daniel J. Mitchell, 17 Jul 2017
Examines various policies in Singapore that have led to its ranking high in the Economic Freedom of the World, but also pointing out problems that detract from a similar score in the Human Freedom Index
I ... greatly admire Singapore's strict adherence to my Golden Rule for a 10-year period beginning in the late 1990s. Government spending actually shrank by a bit more than 1 percent per year, on average, over that decade ... What's especially attractive is that the welfare state is very small in Singapore. According to the IMF ..., expenditures on "social development" are only about 8 percent of GDP, and that category includes education and health care ... One of the reasons the welfare state is so small is that individuals are required to set aside their own money for health and retirement.
Related Topics: Freedom of the Press, Taxation

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Singapore" as of 29 Apr 2024, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.