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Territory in south central Europe, ruled since 1995 by Republika Srpska, the Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine and the Brčko Distrikt

Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in southeastern Europe, in the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an almost landlocked country – it has a narrow coast on the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometers long surrounding the town of Neum. It is bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east and Montenegro to the southeast. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, Herzegovina, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically and socially, the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries. In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

Measures of Freedom

Bosnia and Herzegovina | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Partly Free, Aggregate Score: 57, Political Rights: 4, Civil Liberties: 3
A state-level coalition between the Party of Democratic Action (SDA), a Bosniak party; the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH); the Serb Democratic Party (SDS) and its allies in the Republika Srpska-based Alliance for Change coalition; and the newly-formed Democratic Front (DF) struggled to enact legislation in 2015. An initiative backed by Germany and Britain to restart the country's stalled European Union (EU) bid likewise faltered, as the parties were unable to agree on details of reform efforts.
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2021
2019: 7.54, Rank: 67, Personal Freedom: 8.03, Economic Freedom: 6.86
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 6.85, Rank: 91

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bosnia and Herzegovina" as of 1 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.