Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1989 by the Rzeczpospolita Polska

Poland (Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometers, and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin.

Birthplace of

Carl Menger, in Neu Sandez (Nowy Sącz), on 23 Feb 1840

Measures of Freedom

Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 8.30, Rank: 21, Personal Freedom: 9.18, Economic Freedom: 7.42, Democracy Index: 6.22
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.42, Rank: 40
Poland | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 93, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
"Andrzej Duda of the opposition Law and Justice (PiS) party won the second round of Poland's May 2015 presidential election with 52 percent of the vote, beating out popular incumbent Bronisław Komorowski, whose defeat had not been anticipated. Duda's victory was interpreted by many as a protest vote against the ruling Civil Platform (PO), which had led Poland's government since 2007. Komorowski himself left PO upon taking office in 2010, but remains associated with the party."

Articles

A Tribute to the Polish People, by Lawrence Reed, The Freeman, Oct 2009
Larry reminisces about a visit with the Polish underground movement in 1986
"The history of Poland from the imposition of martial law and the crushing of Solidarity in December 1981 to the glorious elections of 1989 is not the saga of a pessimistic, defeatist, or compliant people. Rather, it is a remarkable testament to the human will to be free."
Stop Worrying about the Election, by Isaac M. Morehouse, Mises Daily, 3 Oct 2008
Illustrates individual freedom using The Shawshank Redemption and events in communist Poland
"... an underground band of freedom fighters in formerly communist Poland. Their spirit of freedom was kept alive despite a tyrannical Communist regime. Indeed, they not only held onto their belief in freedom, but they spread it, often at great risk to their lives. When the Communist authorities finally announced that they were relinquishing their power the reason they gave was that the Polish people had become 'ungovernable.'"
Related Topics: Government, Individual Liberty

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Poland" as of 28 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.