By convention, a continent comprising the westernmost area of Eurasia

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

  • Albania - Territory in southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea, ruled since 1992 by the Republika e Shqipërisë
  • Austria - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1955 by the Republik Österreich
  • Baltic states - Regions of Europe bordering the Baltic Sea
  • Belgium - Territory in northwest Europe, ruled since 1830 by the Koninkrijk België/Royaume de Belgique
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina - Territory in south central Europe, ruled since 1995 by Republika Srpska, the Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine and the Brčko Distrikt
  • British Isles - Group of islands on the Atlantic Ocean, off the northwest coast of Europe
  • Bulgaria - Territory in southeast Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Republic of Bulgaria
  • Croatia - Territory in southern Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Republika Hrvatska
  • Czech Republic - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1993 by the Ceská Republika
  • Denmark - Territory in northen Europe, ruled since 1953 by the Kongeriget Danmark
  • Estonia - Territory in north central Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Eesti Vabariik
  • Europe, Central - Regions in the middle of the European continent
  • Europe, Eastern - Regions of central Europe roughly east of longitude 24° E
  • Europe, Southern - Regions of Europe bordering the Mediterranean Sea
  • Europe, Western - Regions of continental Europe, roughly west of longitude 8° E
  • Finland - Territory in northern Europe, ruled since 1917 by the Suomen tasavalta
  • France - Territory in western Europe, ruled since 1958 by the République Française
  • Germany - Territory in north central Europe, ruled since 1990 by the Bundesrepublik Deutschland
  • Greece - Territory in southeast Europe, ruled since 1975 by the Elliniki Dhimokratia
  • Hungary - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1989 by the Magyarország
  • Ireland, Republic of - Territory in the island of Ireland in the northern Atlantic Ocean, ruled since 1937 by the Poblacht na hÉireann
  • Italy - Territory in southern Europe, ruled since 1946 by the Repubblica Italiana
  • Latvia - Territory in north central Europe, ruled since 1990 by the Latvijas Republika
  • Lithuania - Territory in north central Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Lietuvos Respublika
  • Luxembourg - Territory in northwestern Europe, ruled since 1944 by the Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
  • Macedonia, Republic of - Territory in southeast Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Republika Makedonija
  • Malta - Archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, ruled since 1964 by the Repubblika ta' Malta
  • Monaco - Territory in southeast France, ruled since 1861 by the Grimaldi family
  • Netherlands - Territory in northwest Europe, ruled since 1815 by the Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
  • Norway - Territory in northern Europe, ruled since 1905 by the Kongeriket Norge
  • Poland - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1989 by the Rzeczpospolita Polska
  • Portugal - Territory in southwestern Europe, ruled since 1976 by the República Portuguesa
  • Romania - Territory in southeast Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Statul Român
  • Scandinavia - Region of northern Europe, encompassing the Scandinavian Peninsula and culturally related areas
  • Serbia - Territory in southeastern Europe, ruled since 2006 by the Republika Srbija
  • Slovakia - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1993 by the Slovenská republika
  • Slovenia - Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1991 by the Republika Slovenija
  • Spain - Territory in southwestern Europe, ruled since 1975 by the Reino de España
  • Sweden - Territory in northern Europe, ruled since 1905 by the Konungariket Sverige
  • Switzerland - Territory in west central Europe, ruled since 1848 by the Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft - Confédération suisse - Confederazione Svizzera
  • Ukraine - Territory in eastern Europe, ruled since 1991 by the republic of Uryad Ukrayiny
  • United Kingdom - Island territories in western Europe, ruled since 1921 by the Monarchy of the United Kingdom

Articles

Anarchism, by Voltairine de Cleyre, Free Society, 13 Oct 1901
Examines various economic propositions for anarchism (socialist, communist, individualist and mutualist) and opines that all could be tried out
"And I believe the material reason which accounts for their acceptance of that particular economic scheme [Socialism] is ... that the social development of Europe is ... that almost from time immemorial there has been a recognized class struggle; that no workman living, nor yet his father, nor his grandfather, nor his great-grandfather has seen the land of Europe pass in vast blocks from an unclaimed public inheritance into the hands of an ordinary individual like himself, without a title or any distinguishing mark above himself, as we in America have seen."
Background of the Middle East Conflict, Part 1, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Oct 2003
Historical account of the Middle East and Northern Africa since Napoleon's invasion of Egypt at the end of 18th century to the liberation of Damascus near the end of World War I
"Since Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798, Europe has shown great commercial and colonial interest in Northern Africa and the Middle East. In 1830, the French officially occupied Algeria, which borders the Mediterranean. Unofficially, they seemed to consider most of the region — and especially Egypt — to be a French possession. ... As the Industrial Revolution increased demands for markets and commodities, 19th-century Europe grew ever more eager for a piece of the Arab world. In 1878, Britain assumed the administration of the island of Cyprus to use as a naval base to guard the Turkish Straits and the Suez Canal ..."
Frank Chodorov: A Libertarian's Libertarian, by Joseph R. Stromberg, 30 Nov 1999
Biographical essay on Frank Chodorov with emphasis on his foreign policy views, and his debates about the Cold War with William F. Buckley Jr. and William S. Schlamm in the pages of The Freeman
"Overseas, our rough-and-ready Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, was leaning on France to join the European Defense Community. ... Well, we can’t all plan so many centuries ahead, but it seems clear that if the commies had overrun western Europe and managed 'the gigantic industrial powerhouse' according to their theory and praxis, they would have run it into the ground, quickly reducing their threat to manageable proportions. ... As for Europe: 'it would be hard on the Europeans if they fell into Soviet hands; but not any worse than if we precipitated a war in which their homes became the battlefield.'"
UpdIntersecting Currents of Change, by Kevin Carson, 1 Jul 2013
Discusses how different forces, such as technogical change, counteract the hierarchies of corporations and states
"Networked digital uprisings in other countries (the Arab Spring, M15, Syntagma, etc.), even when they have generally been more or [less] compliant with the American neoliberal system, make them less reliable in support of that system. The networked activism in the EU, responsible for the unprecedented defeat of the ACTA copyright treaty, is a good example ... Snowden's revelations of European governments cooperating with the NSA in spying on their own citizens, and revelations that the US had wiretapped EU offices in the U.S., call into question Europe's future willingness to cooperate as closely with the U.S."
Letters to Thomas Robert Malthus, on Several Subjects of Political Economy, and on the Cause of the Stagnation of Commerce, by Jean-Baptiste Say, 1821
Series of five letters from Say to Malthus, written in response to the latter's criticisms in Principles of Political Economy (1820); the letters were translated from the French by John Richter
"... the French and Dutch ships rushed with a kind of madness ... carried in abundance the produce of the Continent of Europe to all ports, presuming that the other nations of the globe would be eager to possess those commodities ... They would consume them very willingly if they could pay for them ... these very articles, thus rendered scarce in their original country, became more abundant in Europe, and at length so completely overstocked the European markets, that a sufficient price could not be obtained for them, although the consumption of Europe had greatly increased ... hence the disadvantageous returns which we have witnessed."
NATO's Balkans Disaster and Wilsonian Warmongering, Part 1, by Doug Bandow, Future of Freedom, Jul 1999
Analyzes NATO's actions in the Kosovo War in light of the U.S. constitution, the NATO accord and the UN Charter
"NATO, largely at the behest of Washington, intervened in a conflict not its own. It started bombing for the wrong reason. It ignored history and acted hastily. It failed to develop contingency plans ... Until March, NATO adopted the sensible policy of nonintervention in the region. All of the major powers erected firebreaks to war, limiting the Bosnian civil war to Bosnia. In contrast, the allied decision to intervene in Kosovo spread conflict to surrounding states and confronted Russia. Indeed, as in World War I, alliances have acted as transmission belts of war from the Balkans outward to the rest of Europe."
NATO's Balkans Disaster and Wilsonian Warmongering, Part 2, by Doug Bandow, Future of Freedom, Aug 1999
Considers possible justifications for war vis-à-vis NATO's involvement in the conflict between Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Kosovo Liberation Army
"There is no longer a hegemonic threat against Europe. Even a hawk such as the Weekly Standard's William Kristol admits that no comparable threat to the Soviet Union "is likely to emerge for many years, if not decades." Moreover, the Western Europeans are fully capable of dealing with Moscow now and in the future. The European Union has a combined population in excess of 400 million, a GDP over $8 trillion, and a military of more than one million. Add the polyglot nations of central and eastern Europe and the task that would face even a revived Russia becomes insurmountable."
Related Topics: Balkans, Russia, Serbia, War
On Keynes as a Practical Economist, by Julian Simon, The Freeman, Aug 1996
Brief discussion of the predictions made by Keynes, in his 1919 book The Economic Consequences of the Peace, about probable shortages of certain natural resources in the United States and Europe after World War I
"In his world-renowned The Economic Consequences of the Peace ... Keynes wrote that Europe could not supply itself with food and soon would have nowhere to turn: '... Europe's claim on the resources of the New World was becoming precarious; the law of diminishing returns was at last reasserting itself, and was making it necessary year by year for Europe to offer a greater quantity of other commodities to obtain the same amount of bread. ... If France and Italy are to make good their own deficiencies in coal from the output of Germany, then Northern Europe, Switzerland, and Austria ... must be starved of their supplies.'"
Related Topic: Friedrich Hayek
Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, May 1996
Triple biographical essay on the women who in 1943 published The Discovery of Freedom, The God of the Machine and The Fountainhead
"In March 1920, the Red Cross invited her to travel around Europe and report on their relief efforts, so that prospective donors—on whose support they depended—would know about the good deeds of the organization. Based in Paris, she traveled to Vienna, Berlin, Prague, Warsaw, Budapest, Rome, Sarajevo, Dubrovnik, Tirana, Trieste, Athens, Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Constantinople. Lane imagined that Europe was the great hope for civilization, but instead she eluded bandits, encountered bureaucratic corruption, endured runaway inflation, witnessed civil war horrors and the darkening shadows of ruthless tyranny."
The Politics of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, by Hans-Hermann Hoppe, The Wall Street Journal Europe, 30 Dec 1999
Revised version of Prof. Hoppe's Oct 1999 The Free Market; nominates Goethe as the "European of the (second) millennium" article
"'One is mistaken, however, if one thinks that Germany's unity should be expressed in the form of one large capital city, and that this great city might benefit the masses in the same way that it might benefit the development of a few outstanding individuals,' he added. Would that today's Brussels bureaucrats understood this! The single EU market has given the 15 member states the open borders--to people, goods and capital--that Goethe praised in 1828. Free trade and migration are a reality. But what is not needed is a 'large capital city' or a federal state to regulate, or further complicate, life."

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Europe" as of 16 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.