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  • Rose Wilder Lane

    Rose Wilder Lane (1886-1968) was an American journalist, travel writer, novelist, political theorist and the daughter of American author Laura Ingalls Wilder. Along with two other female writers, Ayn Rand and Isabel Paterson, Wilder Lane is noted as one of the most influential advocates of the American libertarian movement.


    Early years

    Rose Wilder was born in De Smet, Dakota Territory on 5 December 1886. She was the first child of Laura Ingalls Wilder and Almanzo Wilder and the only child of her parents to survive into adulthood. Her early years were a difficult time for her parents because of successive crop failures, illnesses and chronic economic hardships. During her childhood, the family moved several times, living with relatives in Minnesota and then Florida and briefly returning to De Smet before settling in Mansfield, Missouri, in 1894. There, her parents would eventually establish a dairy farm and fruit orchards. She attended secondary school in Mansfield and Crowley, Louisiana while living with her aunt Eliza Jane Wilder, graduating in 1904 in a class of seven1. Her intellect and ambition were demonstrated by her ability to compress three years of Latin into one and by graduating at the top of her high school class in Crowley.

    Early career, marriage and divorce

    After high school graduation, Wilder returned to her parents' home in Mansfield and learned telegraphy at the Mansfield railroad station2. Not satisfied with the options open to young women in Mansfield, she moved to Kansas City and worked there as a telegrapher from 1904 to 19073.

    In 1908, Wilder moved to San Francisco, California, where she worked as a telegrapher at the Fairmont Hotel. On 24 March 1909, Rose married salesman, promoter and occasional newspaperman Claire Gillette Lane4. Evidence suggests the Lanes had met back in Kansas City and Rose's diary hints that she moved to San Francisco to join her future husband5. Shortly after they wed, she quit her job with Western Union and the couple embarked on travels across the United States to promote various schemes. Rose soon became pregnant. While staying in Salt Lake City the following November, she gave birth to a premature, stillborn son, according to public records.6 Subsequent surgery in Kansas City likely left her unable to bear children. The topic is mentioned only briefly in a handful of existing letters written by Wilder Lane years after the infant's death in order to express sympathy and understanding to close friends who were also dealing with the loss of a child.

    For the next few years, the Lanes continued to live a nomadic lifestyle, including stays in Missouri, Ohio, New York and Maine to work together and separately on various promotional and advertising projects. While letters to her parents described a happy-go-lucky existence, Wilder Lane's subsequent diary entries and numerous autobiographical magazine articles later described her mindset at this time as depressed and disillusioned with her marriage. She felt her intellectual interests did not mesh with the life she was living with her husband. One account even had her attempting suicide by drugging herself with chloroform only to awake with a headache and a renewed sense of purpose in life.7

    During these years, keenly aware of her lack of a formal education, Wilder Lane read voraciously and taught herself several languages. Her writing career began around 1908, with occasional freelance newspaper jobs that earned much-needed extra cash8. In 1913 and 1914, the Lanes sold farm land in what is now the San Jose/Silicon Valley area of Northern California. Conditions often required them to work separately to earn greater commissions and of the two Rose turned out to be the better salesperson. The marriage foundered as there were several periods of separation and eventually an amicable divorce. Wilder Lane's diaries reveal subsequent romantic involvements with several men in the years following her divorce, but she never remarried and eventually chose to remain single and free of romantic attachments.

    The threat of America's entry into World War I had seriously weakened the real estate market, so in early 1915 Lane accepted a friend's offer of a stopgap job as an editorial assistant on the staff of the San Francisco Bulletin9. The stopgap turned into a watershed. She immediately caught the attention of her editors not only through her talents as a writer in her own right, but also as a highly skilled editor for other writers. Before long, her photo and byline were running in the Bulletin daily, churning out formulaic romantic fiction serials that would run for weeks at a time. Wilder Lane's first-hand accounts of the lives of Henry Ford, Charlie Chaplin, Jack London and Herbert Hoover were published in book form.

    Later in 1915, her mother visited San Francisco for several months. Together they attended the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Details of this visit and of Ingalls Wilder's daily life in 1915 are preserved in letters to her husband in West from Home, published in 1974. Although Wilder Lane's diaries indicate she was separated from her husband in 1915, her mother's letters do not indicate this. The Lanes are recorded as living together with him unemployed and looking for work during her mother's two-month visit. It seems the separation was either covered up, or had not yet involved separate households.

    Freelance writing career

    By 1918, the Lanes marriage officially ended and Rose had quit her job with the San Francisco Bulletin following the resignation of the managing editor, Fremont Older. It was at this point that Wilder Lane launched her career as a freelance writer. From this period through the early 1940s, her work regularly appeared in leading publications such as Harper's, Saturday Evening Post, Sunset, Good Housekeeping and Ladies' Home Journal. Several of her short stories were nominated for O. Henry Prizes and a few novels became top sellers.

    Wilder Lane became the first biographer of Herbert Hoover, writing The Making of Herbert Hoover in 1920 in collaboration with Charles K. Field, editor of Sunset magazine. The book was published well before Hoover became president in 1929. A friend and defender of Hoover's for the remainder of her life, many of her personal papers would later be included in the Rose Wilder Lane collection at the Herbert Hoover Library in West Branch, Iowa10. While her papers contain little actual correspondence between them, the Hoover Post-Presidential Individual series contains a file of Rose's correspondence that spans from 1936 to 196311.

    In the late 1920s, Wilder Lane was reputed to be one of the highest-paid female writers in America and counted among her friends well known figures such as Sinclair Lewis, Isabel Paterson, Dorothy Thompson, John Patric and Lowell Thomas. Despite this success, her compulsive generosity with her family and friends often found her strapped for cash and forced to work on material that paid well, but thus did not engage her growing interests in political theory and world history. She suffered from periodic bouts of self-doubt and depression in mid-life, diagnosing herself as having bipolar disorder. During these times of depression, Wilder Lane was unable to move ahead with her own writing, but she would easily find work as a ghostwriter or silent editor for other well-known writers.

    Wilder Lane's occasional work as a traveling war correspondent began with a stint with the American Red Cross Publicity Bureau in post-World War I Europe. She would continue with the Red Cross through 1965, reporting from Vietnam at the age of 78 for Woman's Day magazine to provide "a woman's point of view". She traveled extensively in Europe and Asia as part of the Red Cross. In 1926, Wilder Lane, Helen Dore Boylston and their French maid traveled from France to Albania in a car they had named Zenobia. An account of the journey called Travels With Zenobia: Paris to Albania by Model T Ford was published in 1983. Wilder Lane became enamored with Albania and lived there for several long periods during the 1920s, spaced between sojourns to Paris and her parents' Rocky Ridge Farm in Missouri. She informally adopted a young Albanian boy named Rexh Meta, who she claimed saved her life on a dangerous mountain trek. She later sponsored his education at Cambridge University12. He served in the Albanian government and was imprisoned for over thirty years by both the Italian fascists and the Albanian communists, dying in Tirana in 1985.

    In 1928, Wilder Lane returned to the United States to live on her parents' farm. Confident in her sales of her books and short stories as well as her growing stock market investments, she spent freely, building a new home for her parents on the property and modernizing the farmhouse for herself and a steady stream of visiting literary friends.

    Literary collaboration

    Wilder Lane's role in her mother's Little House book series has remained unclear13. Her parents had invested with her broker upon her advice and when the market crashed the Wilders found themselves in difficult times. Rose came to the farm at 46 years old, divorced and childless, with minimal finances to keep her afloat14.

    In late 1930, her mother approached Rose with a rough, first-person narrative manuscript outlining her hardscrabble pioneer childhood, Pioneer Girl. Wilder Lane took notice and started using her connections in the publishing world. Despite her efforts to market Pioneer Girl through her publishing connections, the manuscript was rejected time and again. One editor recommended crafting a novel for children out of the beginning. Laura and Rose worked on the idea15 and the result was Little House in the Big Woods. Accepted for publishing by Harper and Brothers in late 1931, then hitting the shelves in 1932, the book's success resulted in the decision to continue the series, following young Laura into young adulthood. The First Four Years was discovered as a manuscript after Rose's death in 1968. Laura had written the manuscript about the first four years of her marriage and the struggles of the frontier, but she never had intended for it to be published. However, in 1971 it became the ninth volume in the Little House series16.

    Successful novels

    The collaboration between the two is believed by literary historians to have benefited Rose's career as much as her mother's. Wilder Lane's most popular short stories and her two most commercially successful novels were written at this time and were fueled by material which was taken directly from Laura's recollections of Ingalls-Wilder family folklore. Let the Hurricane Roar (later titled Young Pioneers) and Free Land both addressed the difficulties of homesteading in the Dakotas in the late 19th century and how the so-called "free land" in fact cost homesteaders their life savings. The Saturday Evening Post paid Wilder Lane top fees to serialize both novels, which were later adapted for popular radio performances. Both books represented Wilder Lane's creative and literary peak. The Saturday Evening Post paid her $30,000 in 1938 to serialize her best-selling novel Free Land (or about $600,000 in 2022). Let the Hurricane Roar saw an increasing and steady sale, augmented by its adaptation into popular radio dramatization that starred Helen Hayes.

    In 1938, with the proceeds of Free Land in hand, Wilder Lane was able to pay all of her accumulated debts. She relocated to Danbury, Connecticut and purchased a rural home there with three wooded acres, on which she lived for the rest of her life. At this same time, the growing royalties from the Little House books were providing her parents with an assured and sufficient income. Rose bought her parents an automobile and financed construction of the Rock House near the Wilder homestead. Her parents resided in the Rock House during much of the 1930s.

    Return to journalism and societal views

    During World War II, Wilder Lane enjoyed a new phase in her writing career. From 1942 to 1945, she wrote a weekly column for The Pittsburgh Courier, at the time the most widely read African-American newspaper17.

    Rather than hiding or trimming her laissez-faire views, Wilder Lane seized the chance to sell them to the readership. She sought out topics of special interest to her audience. Her first entry characterized the Double V campaign as part of the more general fight for individual liberty in the United States, writing: "Here, at last, is a place where I belong. Here are the Americans who know the value of equality and freedom"18. Her columns highlighted success stories of blacks to illustrate broader themes about entrepreneurship, freedom and creativity. In one, she compared the accomplishments of Robert Lee Vann and Henry Ford. Vann's rags to riches story illustrated the benefits in a "capitalist society in which a penniless orphan, one of a despised minority can create The Pittsburgh Courier and publicly, vigorously, safely, attack a majority opinion" while Ford's showed how a poor mechanic can create "hundreds of jobs, [...] putting even beggars into cars"19.

    Wilder Lane combined advocacy of laissez faire and anti-racism. The views she expressed on race were similar to those of Zora Neale Hurston, a fellow individualist and writer who was black. Her columns emphasized the arbitrariness of racial categories and stressed the centrality of the individual. Instead of indulging in what she referred to as the "ridiculous, idiotic and tragic fallacy of race, [by] which a minority of the earth's population has deluded itself during the past century", Wilder Lane believed it was time for all Americans. black and white, to "renounce their race"20. Judging by skin color was comparable to the communists who assigned guilt or virtue on the basis of class. In Wilder Lane's view, the fallacies of race and class harkened to the "old English-feudal 'class' distinction"21. She further believed that the collectivists, including those who embraced President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, were to blame for filling "young minds with fantasies of 'races' and 'classes' and 'the masses,' all controlled by pagan gods, named Economic Determinism or Society or Government"22.

    Along with Hurston and Paterson, Wilder Lane was critical of Roosevelt on his foreign policy23 and was against drafting young men into "a foreign war for foreign interests"24.

    The Discovery of Freedom

    For a few months in 1940, Wilder Lane's growing zeal for libertarianism united her with the well-known vagabond free-lance writer John Patric, a like-minded political thinker whose advocacy of libertarian themes culminated in his 1943 work Yankee Hobo in the Orient. They spent several months traveling across the country in Patric's automobile to observe the effects of the Great Depression on the nation and to exchange ideas. The trip culminated in a two-month stay in Bellingham, Washington25.

    In the early 1940s, despite continuing requests from editors for both fiction and non-fiction material, Wilder Lane turned away from commercial fiction writing, save for her collaboration on her mother's books. At this time, she became known among libertarians as influential in the movement. She vehemently opposed the New Deal, eschewed "creeping socialism", Social Security, wartime rationing and all forms of taxation. Wilder Lane ceased writing highly paid commercial fiction to protest paying income taxes. Living on a small salary from her newspaper column and no longer needing to support her parents or adopted sons, she cut expenses to the bare minimum, living a modern-day version of her ancestors' pioneer life on her rural land near Danbury. She gained some media attention for her refusal to accept a ration card, instead working cooperatively with her rural neighbors to grow and preserve fruits and vegetables and to raise chickens and pigs for meat. Literary critic and political writer Isabel Paterson had urged Wilder Lane to move to Connecticut, where she would be only "up country a few miles" from Paterson, who had been a friend for many years26.

    After experiencing it first hand in the Soviet Union during her travels with the Red Cross, Wilder Lane was a staunch opponent of communism. As a result, Wilder Lane's initial writings on individualism and conservative government began while she was still writing popular fiction in the 1930s, culminating with The Discovery of Freedom (1943). After this point, Wilder Lane promoted and wrote about individual freedom and its impact on humanity. The same year also saw the publication of Paterson's The God of the Machine and Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead. Because of these writings, the three women have been referred to as the founding mothers of the American libertarian movement27.

    Writer Albert Jay Nock wrote that Wilder Lane and Paterson's nonfiction works were "the only intelligible books on the philosophy of individualism that have been written in America this century"28. The two women had "shown the male world of this period how to think fundamentally. ... They don't fumble and fiddle around–every shot goes straight to the centre"29. Journalist John Chamberlain credits Rand, Paterson and Wilder Lane with his final "conversion" from socialism to what he called "an older American philosophy" of libertarian and conservative ideas30.

    In 1943, Wilder Lane came into the national spotlight through her response to a radio address about Social Security. She mailed in a postcard with a response emphasizing that Social Security was a system first established by Bismarck and that Americans did not believe "in being taxed for their own good". Wartime monitoring of mail eventually resulted in a Connecticut State Trooper being dispatched to her home to question her motives. Her strong response to this infringement on her right of free speech resulted in a flurry of newspaper articles and the publishing of a pamphlet, "What is this—the Gestapo?"31, that was meant to remind Americans to be watchful of their rights despite the wartime exigencies32. The pamphlet was distributed by the National Economic Council, Inc, a conservative political organization for which she later worked as editor and book reviewer. During this time period, an FBI file was compiled on Wilder Lane33.

    As Wilder Lane aged, her political opinions solidified as a stalwart libertarian. Her defense of what she considered to be basic American principles of liberty and freedom were seen by some as harsh and abrasive in the face of disagreement. During this time period she broke with her old friend and political ally Isabel Paterson34. Also during this time and into the 1950s, Wilder Lane had an acrimonious correspondence with socialist writer Max Eastman35.

    Later years and death

    Wilder Lane played a hands-on role during the 1940s and 1950s in launching the libertarian movement27 and began an extensive correspondence with figures such as DuPont executive Jasper Crane and writer Frank Meyer as well as her friend and colleague Ayn Rand36. She wrote book reviews for the National Economic Council and later for the Volker Fund, out of which grew the Institute for Humane Studies. Later, she lectured at and gave generous financial support to the Freedom School headed by libertarian Robert LeFevre37.

    With her mother's death in 1957, ownership of the Rocky Ridge Farm house reverted to the farmer who had earlier bought the property on a life lease, allowing her to remain in residence. The local population put together a non-profit corporation to purchase the house and its grounds for use as a museum. After some wariness at the notion of seeing the house rather than the books themselves be a shrine to her mother, Wilder Lane came to believe that making it into a museum would draw long-lasting attention to the books and sustain the theme of individualism she and her mother wove into the series. She donated the money needed to purchase the house and make it a museum, agreed to make significant contributions each year for its upkeep and also gave many of the family's belongings to the group38. Wilder Lane's lifetime inheritance of Ingalls Wilder's growing Little House royalties enabled Rose to again travel extensively and thoroughly renovated and remodeled her Connecticut home. Also during the 1960s, she revived her own commercial writing career by publishing several popular magazine series, including one about her tour of the Vietnam War zone in late 1965.

    In later years, Wilder Lane wrote a book detailing the history of American needlework for Woman's Day. She edited and published On the Way Home, providing an autobiographical setting around her mother's original 1894 diary of their six-week journey from South Dakota to Missouri. Intended to serve as the capstone to the Little House series, the book was the result of Ingalls Wilder's fans who were writing to Wilder Lane asking "what happened next?". She contributed book reviews to the William Volker Fund and continued to work on revisions of The Discovery of Freedom, which she never completed.

    Wilder Lane was the adoptive grandmother and mentor to Roger Lea MacBride, later the Libertarian Party's 1976 candidate for president39. The son of one of her editors with whom she formed a close bond when he was a boy, Wilder Lane later stated she was grooming him to be a future libertarian thought leader. In addition to being her close friend, MacBride became her attorney and business manager and ultimately the heir to the Little House series and the multimillion-dollar franchise that he built around it after her death.

    The last of the protégés to be taken under Wilder Lane's wing was the sister of her Vietnamese interpreter. Impressed by the young girl's intelligence, Wilder Lane helped to bring her to the United States and sponsored her enrollment in college.40

    Wilder Lane died in her sleep at age 81 on October 30, 1968 just as she was about to depart on a three-year world tour. She was buried next to her parents at Mansfield Cemetery in Mansfield, Missouri.

    In the media

    Wilder Lane was portrayed in the television adaptations of Little House on the Prairie by:

    • Jennifer and Michele Steffin
    • Terra Allen (part 1) and Skye McCole Bartusiak, Christina Stojanovich (part 2), in the miniseries Beyond the Prairie: The True Story of Laura Ingalls Wilder.

    There are eight novels written by MacBride, telling of her childhood and early youth. Despite assertions of the accuracy of the locations, dates and people mentioned, there is heavy debate on the degree of authenticity. At least some events may be accurately represented as he was a close friend of hers.

    In the novel Pioneer Girl by Bich Minh Nguyen, a young Vietnamese-American Lee Lien researches Wilder Lane's life based on an old family story. Lee's grandfather claims that Wilder Lane became friendly with the family while visiting Vietnam in 1965 and "accidentally" gifted them with a gold pin, suspected to be the one Almanzo gave to Wilder Lane's mother as described in These Happy Golden Years41.

    In the novel A Wilder Rose by Susan Wittig Albert, Wilder Lane tells the story of her work on the Little House books and her years at the Wilder farm (1928–1935) to Norma Lee Browning, a young friend. The novel is based on Wilder Lane's diaries and journals of the period and letters exchanged with her mother.

    In the alternate history novel The Probability Broach by L. Neil Smith in which the United States becomes a libertarian state in 1794 after a successful Whiskey Rebellion and the overthrowing and execution of George Washington by firing squad for treason, Wilder Lane served as the 21st President of the North American Confederacy from 1940 to 1952.

    1. John E. Miller, Becoming Laura Ingalls Wilder: The Woman behind the Legend, Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1998, p. 108. ↩︎

    2. Ibid., p. 109. ↩︎

    3. Ibid., p. 112. ↩︎

    4. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House: A Life of Rose Wilder Lane, Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1993, p. 50. ↩︎

    5. Ibid., p. 49. ↩︎

    6. Christine Woodside, Libertarians on the Prairie: Laura Ingalls Wilder, Rose Wilder Lane, and the Making of the Little House Books, New York: Arcade Publishing, 2016, p. 39. See also State of Utah—Death Certificate ↩︎

    7. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House, op. cit., p. 162. See also "I, Rose Wilder Lane, am the Only Truly Happy Person I Know And I Discovered the Secret of Happiness on the Day I Tried to Kill Myself", Hearst's International—Cosmopolitan, Vol. LXXX, No. 6, June 1926, pp. 42-43, 140. ↩︎

    8. "Ups and Downs of Modern Mercury", The San Francisco Call, Volume CIV, No. 112, 20 September 1908, Magazine section, p. 4; "The Constantly Increasing Wonders in the New Field of Wireless", The San Francisco Call, Volume CIV, No. 175, 22 November 1908, Magazine section, p. 4. ↩︎

    9. "A Noted Writer", Mansfield Mirror, Volume 7, Number 23, 29 July 1915, p. 1. ↩︎

    10. "Manuscript Collections - Rose Wilder Lane Papers, The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum",, retrieved 20 July 2022. ↩︎

    11. "Post Presidential Individual Correspondence, 1933-1964, The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum",, retrieved 20 July 2022, Box 119, p. 27. ↩︎

    12. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House, op. cit., p. 184. ↩︎

    13. John E. Miller, Laura Ingalls Wilder and Rose Wilder Lane: Authorship, Place, Time, and Culture, Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 2008, pp. 19-41. ↩︎

    14. Anita Clair Fellman, "Laura Ingalls Wilder and Rose Wilder Lane: The Politics of a Mother-Daughter Relationship", Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 15, No. 3, Spring 1990, pp. 535, 549. ↩︎

    15. Judith Thurman, "Wilder Women: The mother and daughter behind the Little House stories", The New Yorker, 3 August 2009, retrieved 21 July 2022. ↩︎

    16. "Laura Ingalls Wilder", State Historical Society of Missouri,, retrieved 21 July 2022. ↩︎

    17. Ernest C. Hynds, American Newspapers in the 1980s, New York: Hastings House, 1980, p. 110. ↩︎

    18. The Pittsburgh Courier, 31 October 1942, quoted in David T. Beito and Linday Royster Beito, "Isabel Paterson, Rose Wilder Lane, and Zora Neale Hurston on War, Race, the State, and Liberty", The Independent Review, Vol. XII, no. 4, Spring 2008, p. 564. ↩︎

    19. The Pittsburgh Courier, 30 October 1943, 27 November 1943, quoted in ibid. ↩︎

    20. The Pittsburgh Courier, 27 March 1943, quoted in David T. Beito and Linday Royster Beito, "Selling Laissez-faire Antiracism to the Black Masses: Rose Wilder Lane and the Pittsburgh Courier", The Independent Review, Vol. 15, no. 2, Fall 2010, p. 283. ↩︎

    21. The Pittsburgh Courier, 20 February 1943, quoted in ibid. ↩︎

    22. The Pittsburgh Courier, 27 February 1943, quoted in ibid. ↩︎

    23. David T. Beito and Linday Royster Beito, "Isabel Paterson, Rose Wilder Lane, and Zora Neale Hurston on War, Race, the State, and Liberty", op. cit., p. 562. ↩︎

    24. "War! What Women in America Can Do to Prevent It", Woman's Day, April 1939, p. 4, quoted in ibid. ↩︎

    25. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House, op. cit., p. 291. ↩︎

    26. Stephen Cox, The Woman and the Dynamo, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2004, p. 216-218. ↩︎

    27. Caroline Breashears, "What the Founding Mothers of Liberty Can Teach Us about True Rights and Responsibilities",, 7 September 2019, retrieved 26 July 2022. See also Cato Institute, "Three Women Who Launched a Movement",, March 2003; Jim Powell, "Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement", The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty, Vol. 46, No. 5, May 1996, pp. 322-331 and David Boaz, "Libertarians and the Struggle for Women's Rights",, 23 March 2015, retrieved 26 July 2022. ↩︎

    28. Albert Jay Nock, Letters from Albert Jay Nock, 1924-1945, to Edmund C. Evans, Mrs. Edmund C. Evans and Ellen Winsor, Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1949, p. 181. ↩︎

    29. Ibid., p. 183. ↩︎

    30. John Chamberlain, A Life with the Printed Word, Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1982, p. 136. ↩︎

    31. "What is this—the Gestapo?", Economic Council Papers, Vol. II, No. 4, New York: National Economic Council, Inc., August 1943. ↩︎

    32. Associated Press, "Author's Criticism of Social Security Brings FBI Probe", Washington Star, 9 August 1943; "New Deal Gag Moves Defied by 2 Women", Chicago Daily Tribune, 10 August 1943, pp. 1, 6. ↩︎

    33. Timothy Sandefur, "'What Is This: The Gestapo?'" Rose Wiler Lane's FBI file",, 14 August 2020, retrieved 29 July 2022. ↩︎

    34. Stephen Cox, The Woman and the Dynamo, op. cit., p. 335. ↩︎

    35. Box 1, Series: Correspondence, Eastman mss., Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. ↩︎

    36. Jennifer Burns, Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 104, 117, 119-123. ↩︎

    37. David T. Beito and Linday Royster Beito, "Isabel Paterson, Rose Wilder Lane, and Zora Neale Hurston on War, Race, the State, and Liberty", op. cit., p. 569. ↩︎

    38. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House, op. cit., p. 340. ↩︎

    39. David Boaz, "The Legacy of Laura Ingalls Wilder, One of America’s First Libertarians",, 9 May 2015, retrieved 1 August 2022. ↩︎

    40. William Holtz, The Ghost in the Little House, op. cit., p. 363. ↩︎

    41. Bich Minh Nguyen, Pioneer Girl, New York: Viking, 2014, pp. 3-5, 27, 76-80. ↩︎

    This article is derived from the English Wikipedia article "Rose Wilder Lane" as of 10 Jun 2022, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.