Territory in western Europe, ruled since 1958 by the République Française


France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"France, officially the French Republic (French: République française), is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as l'Hexagone ('The Hexagon') because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is the largest western European country and it possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2, just behind that of the United States. ..."

Birthplace of

Claude Frédéric Bastiat, in Bayonne, on 30 Jun 1801
Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, in Grenoble, on 30 Sep 1715
Étienne de La Boétie, in Sarlat, on 1 Nov 1530
Francois Quesnay, in Méré, on 4 Jun 1694
Jean-Baptiste Say, in Lyon, on 5 Jan 1767
Alexis de Tocqueville, in Paris, on 29 Jul 1805
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, in Paris, on 10 May 1727

Home To

Institut Coppet, Paris

Deathplace of

Etienne Bonnot de Condillac, in Beaugency, on 3 Aug 1780
Benjamin Constant, in Paris, on 8 Dec 1830
Étienne de La Boétie, in Germignan, on 18 Aug 1563
Francois Quesnay, in Versailles, on 16 Dec 1774
Jean-Baptiste Say, in Paris, on 15 Nov 1832
Alexis de Tocqueville, in Cannes, on 16 Apr 1859
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, in Paris, on 18 Mar 1781

Measures of Freedom

France | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 91, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
"The year 2015 was flanked by several horrific attacks in France. On January 7, two French-born brothers of Algerian origin terrorized the Paris office of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people. Two days later, an accomplice took several hostages at a kosher market in the capital, taking four lives before he was killed by police. In the aftermath of these events, the government enacted a law granting security agencies extensive new surveillance powers."
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 8.05, Rank: 31, Personal Freedom: 8.81, Economic Freedom: 7.30, Democracy Index: 7.85
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.30, Rank: 57


Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order, by Wendy McElroy, Literature of Liberty, 1981
Bibliographical essay covering the people and radical movements that influenced Tucker in his founding and publishing of Liberty, its major themes and contributors
"Given the immense influence Proudhon had upon Tucker, Liberty naturally felt strong ties to radical movements in France. These ties manifested themselves in two ways: translations and reprints. ... The periodical from which articles were most frequently translated and reprinted in Liberty was Henri Rochefort's L'Intransigeant. Next in importance was George Clemenceau's L'Aurore. Le Révolté (subsequently La Révolté) edited by Pierre Kropotkin received praise from Tucker as 'our ardent and admirable contemporary.'"
Give Me Liberty, by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
"It was impossible to know France without knowing that the French demand order, discipline, the restraint of traditional forms, the bureaucratic regulation of human lives by centralized police power, and that the fierce French democracy is not a cry for individual liberty but an insistence that the upper classes shall not too harshly exploit the lower classes."
Jean-Baptiste Say (1767 - 1832), Religion & Liberty, Jun 2002
"While popular abroad, Say's Treatise brought put him into conflict with Napoleon, who was furious at Say's refusal to tone down his criticism of France's disastrous fiscal policies. ... It was not until 1814, with Napoleon exiled, that Say's Treatise came back into print in France."
Mont Pelerin: 1947-1978, The Road to Libertarianism, by Ralph Raico, Libertarian Review, Dec 1979
Reviews the presentations and discussions at the 1978 meeting of the Mont Pelerin Society, with an overview of the Society's history and particularly the 1958 meeting which had similar themes
"Henri Lepage reported that an intellectual revolution is occuring in France, a revolution which sees freedom doomed by government intervention in the functioning of society. The challenge of the 'New Philosophers' to statism, he said, is matched by that of the 'New Economists.' Led by Jean Jacques Rosa, these French economists stress the new liberalism against traditional Keynesian conservatism. In addition, Lepage saw as a promising development 'the coming out of a French "libertarian movement" ... whose mere existence, even if it is yet mostly informal, is also proof that something is changing in France.'"
Professor Ludwig von Mises Discusses Free Enterprise, La Prensa, 2 Jun 1959
Translation of interview with Ludwig von Mises upon visiting Buenos Aires; discusses Mises' views on free enterprise, inflation, the policies of De Gaulle and Adenauer and the possibility of an Argentine economic recovery
"In reference to the reactions against the inflationary process, he noted the 'healthy reaction in France, where General de Gaulle tries to fight budget deficits, aiming to restore the finances of his country.' He added that 'maybe he will find imitators in other western countries,' and he made clear that his approval of the Gaullist policy was for the financial policies mentioned."
The French Employment Fiasco, by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr., Mises Daily, 11 Apr 2006
"The proposal to loosen labor regulations ... doesn't go nearly far enough. France needs reform that simultaneously frees business in its hiring and firing decisions, frees wages to adjust based on supply and demand, frees the business sector from regulations that inhibit entrepreneurship, and reduces the costs of hiring by eliminating mandates and taxes."
Related Topics: Labor, Unemployment
The Libertarian Student Movement, by Wolf von Laer, Aaron Powell, Caleb Brown, Free Thoughts, 17 Feb 2017
Interview with Wolf von Laer, CEO of Students for Liberty, to discuss the status of the liberty movement on college campuses
"Just recently, one of our so-called Local Coordinators, one of our volunteers, was on French national television, quoting Frédéric Bastiat and defending Uber. These are kids who are like twenty-two years, twenty-three years old. And he’s not an outlier. ... I've already alluded to France, but when we started on the board, actually, we had seven people sitting on it and planning the future, how are we going to do this, organizing events. And we said, 'Oh, we're not going to touch France because nobody is Libertarian there whatsoever.' And now it's like one of our strongholds there."
The Railroads Of France, by Murray Rothbard, The Freeman, Sep 1955
Recounts the history of gradual nationalization of French railroads from 1876 to 1938, as well as a comparison between the Belgian state-owned railway and the then privately-owned French Northern Railway
"France took its first halting step toward nationalization of railways in 1876 when it took over one small railroad. ... the French government purchased the large and important Western Railway system in 1908 ... Not until 1937 was the campaign to nationalize all French railroads completed."
Related Topics: Belgium, Transportation


    by Paul Johnson, May 2002


Paris Loves Ron Paul, 14 Dec 2007