Territory in western Europe, ruled since 1958 by the République Française

Reference

France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"France, officially the French Republic (French: République française), is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as l'Hexagone ('The Hexagon') because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is the largest western European country and it possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2, just behind that of the United States. ..."

Birthplace of

Frédéric Bastiat, in Bayonne, on 30 Jun 1801
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, in Grenoble, on 30 Sep 1715
Étienne de La Boétie, in Sarlat, on 1 Nov 1530
François Quesnay, in Méré, on 4 Jun 1694
Jean-Baptiste Say, in Lyon, on 5 Jan 1767
Alexis de Tocqueville, in Paris, on 29 Jul 1805
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, in Paris, on 10 May 1727

Home To

Institut Coppet, Paris

Deathplace of

Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, in Beaugency, on 3 Aug 1780
Benjamin Constant, in Paris, on 8 Dec 1830
Étienne de La Boétie, in Germignan, on 18 Aug 1563
François Quesnay, in Versailles, on 16 Dec 1774
Jean-Baptiste Say, in Paris, on 15 Nov 1832
Alexis de Tocqueville, in Cannes, on 16 Apr 1859
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, in Paris, on 18 Mar 1781

Measures of Freedom

France | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 91, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
"The year 2015 was flanked by several horrific attacks in France. On January 7, two French-born brothers of Algerian origin terrorized the Paris office of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people. Two days later, an accomplice took several hostages at a kosher market in the capital, taking four lives before he was killed by police. In the aftermath of these events, the government enacted a law granting security agencies extensive new surveillance powers."
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 8.05, Rank: 31, Personal Freedom: 8.81, Economic Freedom: 7.30, Democracy Index: 7.85
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.30, Rank: 57

Articles

Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order, by Wendy McElroy, Literature of Liberty, 1981
Bibliographical essay covering the people and radical movements that influenced Tucker in his founding and publishing of Liberty, its major themes and contributors
"Given the immense influence Proudhon had upon Tucker, Liberty naturally felt strong ties to radical movements in France. These ties manifested themselves in two ways: translations and reprints. ... The periodical from which articles were most frequently translated and reprinted in Liberty was Henri Rochefort's L'Intransigeant. Next in importance was George Clemenceau's L'Aurore. Le Révolté (subsequently La Révolté) edited by Pierre Kropotkin received praise from Tucker as 'our ardent and admirable contemporary.'"
Brilliant but Absent-Minded Adam Smith, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Mar 1995
Biographical essay
"Smith met the Duke in London in January 1764, and from there traveled to Toulouse ... For anyone interested in liberty, France was an ideal destination at that time. Smith saw firsthand how the French were struggling with a much more costly, interventionist government than he had experienced. Smith visited with leading intellectual rebels. In Paris, he met Francois Quesnay, founder of the Physiocratic school of laissez faire economics. Smith got to know Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, the passionate French advocate of laissez faire policies. Smith visited Geneva and met Voltaire who reportedly declared: 'This Smith is an excellent man!'"
UpdConstant, Benjamin (1767-1830), by David M. Hart, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"Constant began his political career in 1799, when he was elected a member of the Tribunate under Napoleon's Consulate. He served there until 1802. ... Surprisingly, Constant was invited back to Paris by Napoleon after his escape from Elba in 1814 to draw up a new constitution, the Acte additionnel aux constitutions de l'empire, or the 'Benjamine' as it was known. ... When Napoleon fell from power again, Constant was once again forced into exile ... He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1819, where he served until his death in 1830, first representing Sarthe and then Paris. He also served as president of the Council of State."
Give Me Liberty, by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
"It was impossible to know France without knowing that the French demand order, discipline, the restraint of traditional forms, the bureaucratic regulation of human lives by centralized police power, and that the fierce French democracy is not a cry for individual liberty but an insistence that the upper classes shall not too harshly exploit the lower classes."
Jean-Baptiste Say (1767 - 1832), Religion & Liberty, Jun 2002
"While popular abroad, Say's Treatise brought put him into conflict with Napoleon, who was furious at Say's refusal to tone down his criticism of France's disastrous fiscal policies. ... It was not until 1814, with Napoleon exiled, that Say's Treatise came back into print in France."
Mont Pelerin: 1947-1978, The Road to Libertarianism, by Ralph Raico, Libertarian Review, Dec 1979
Reviews the presentations and discussions at the 1978 meeting of the Mont Pelerin Society, with an overview of the Society's history and particularly the 1958 meeting which had similar themes
"Henri Lepage reported that an intellectual revolution is occuring in France, a revolution which sees freedom doomed by government intervention in the functioning of society. The challenge of the 'New Philosophers' to statism, he said, is matched by that of the 'New Economists.' Led by Jean Jacques Rosa, these French economists stress the new liberalism against traditional Keynesian conservatism. In addition, Lepage saw as a promising development 'the coming out of a French "libertarian movement" ... whose mere existence, even if it is yet mostly informal, is also proof that something is changing in France.'"
Professor Ludwig von Mises Discusses Free Enterprise, La Prensa, 2 Jun 1959
Translation of interview with Ludwig von Mises upon visiting Buenos Aires; discusses Mises' views on free enterprise, inflation, the policies of De Gaulle and Adenauer and the possibility of an Argentine economic recovery
"In reference to the reactions against the inflationary process, he noted the 'healthy reaction in France, where General de Gaulle tries to fight budget deficits, aiming to restore the finances of his country.' He added that 'maybe he will find imitators in other western countries,' and he made clear that his approval of the Gaullist policy was for the financial policies mentioned."
The Early Economists Who Tried to Save France, by Richard Ebeling, 31 Oct 2016
Discusses the Physiocrats, focusing on Quesnay and Turgot
"In August 1774, Jacque Turgot was appointed comptroller-general of the finances of France by the new king, Louis XVI. The finances of the French government were in total chaos because of the exorbitant expenditures of the royal house ... Turgot wrote to the king saying that bankruptcy of the government had to be avoided ... [and] that the government should institute a policy of retrenchment through deep cuts in spending. He also told the king that he realized the anger he could expect from those who had become accustomed to financial favors, privileges, and subsidies from the government. "
The French Employment Fiasco, by Lew Rockwell, Mises Daily, 11 Apr 2006
"The proposal to loosen labor regulations ... doesn't go nearly far enough. France needs reform that simultaneously frees business in its hiring and firing decisions, frees wages to adjust based on supply and demand, frees the business sector from regulations that inhibit entrepreneurship, and reduces the costs of hiring by eliminating mandates and taxes."
Related Topics: Labor, Unemployment
The Libertarian Student Movement, by Caleb Brown, Wolf von Laer, Aaron Ross Powell, Free Thoughts, 17 Feb 2017
Interview with Wolf von Laer, CEO of Students for Liberty, to discuss the status of the liberty movement on college campuses
"Just recently, one of our so-called Local Coordinators, one of our volunteers, was on French national television, quoting Frédéric Bastiat and defending Uber. These are kids who are like twenty-two years, twenty-three years old. And he’s not an outlier. ... I've already alluded to France, but when we started on the board, actually, we had seven people sitting on it and planning the future, how are we going to do this, organizing events. And we said, 'Oh, we're not going to touch France because nobody is Libertarian there whatsoever.' And now it's like one of our strongholds there."
The Physiocrats, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Dec 2010
Discusses the 18th century French economists and their influences on Adam Smith, on American agriarianism and on Henry George
"Under Louis XV (1710–1774) and Louis XVI (1754–1793), France was plagued by ruinously expensive warfare along with economic instability. A huge schism existed between the elite with wealth and status and the vast majority of people without either. ... In 1789, the French Revolution erupted. ... under the Jacobin leadership of Maximilien Robespierre and Louis de Saint-Just, the Reign of Terror (1793–1794) was unleashed. During that period, the deceptively named Committee of Public Safety directed the widespread execution of those considered to be enemies of the state. ... Louis XVI and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were guillotined as counterrevolutionaries."
The Railroads Of France, by Murray Rothbard, The Freeman, Sep 1955
Recounts the history of gradual nationalization of French railroads from 1876 to 1938, as well as a comparison between the Belgian state-owned railway and the then privately-owned French Northern Railway
"France took its first halting step toward nationalization of railways in 1876 when it took over one small railroad. ... the French government purchased the large and important Western Railway system in 1908 ... Not until 1937 was the campaign to nationalize all French railroads completed."
Related Topics: Belgium, Transportation
UpdTocqueville, Alexis de (1805-1859), by Jason Kuznicki, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"Tocqueville's unfinished masterpiece L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution argued that the French Old Regime improperly individualized and atomized French society. As the central government grew in power, it obliterated the private communal bonds that could otherwise have brought the citizens a more equitable and enriching social life. Each person was instead brought into a relationship of dependence on the state, in which the individual sought to extract state privileges ... Tocqueville documented ... how Paris, the capital city, had grown enormously in population and concentrated wealth."
UpdTurgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques (1727-1781), by David M. Hart, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"... Gournay ... is reputed to have coined the expression 'laissez faire, laissez passer' when asked what government economic policy should be. ... Turgot had two opportunities to put free-market reforms into practice: on a local scale when he was appointed Intendant of Limoges in 1761–1774 and on a national level when the new King Louis XVI made him Minister of Finances. ... Turgot's attempted reforms were extensive and comprise a veritable 'revolution in government.' Had they succeeded, the French Old Regime might well have opened up its economy, overcome its internal economic problems, and thus averted the Revolution that was to break out in 1789."

Books

Napoleon
    by Paul Johnson, May 2002

Videos


Paris Loves Ron Paul, 14 Dec 2007