Islands off the southeast coast of Africa, ruled since 1960 by the Repoblikan'i Madagasikara

Madagascar (Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world) and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

Measures of Freedom

Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 7.05, Rank: 65, Personal Freedom: 7.56, Economic Freedom: 6.54, Democracy Index: 4.35
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 6.54, Rank: 108
Madagascar | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Partly Free, Aggregate Score: 56, Political Rights: 3, Civil Liberties: 4
"Madagascar continued its progress toward democratic consolidation in 2015. Competitive elections for local government positions in July and the Senate in December completed the return to democratic government after Andry Rajoelina's 2009 military-backed coup. The National Assembly voted to impeach President Hery Rajaonarimampianina in May 2015, citing his failure to uphold the constitution, but a court ruling struck down the attempt."

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Madagascar" as of 26 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.