Anarchist doctrine proposed by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon


Mutualism (economic theory) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought that originates in the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market. Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration. Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying 'the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility.' ..."


Anarchism, by Voltairine de Cleyre, Free Society, 13 Oct 1901
Examines various economic propositions for anarchism (socialist, communist, individualist and mutualist) and opines that all could be tried out
"Anarchist Mutualism is a modification of the program of Individualism, laying more emphasis upon organization, co-operation and free federation of the workers. To these the trade union is the nucleus of the free cooperative group, which will obviate the necessity of an employer, issue time-checks to its members, take charge of the finished product, exchange with different trade groups for their mutual advantage through the central federation, enable its members to utilize their credit, and likewise insure them against loss."
Mutualism: An interview with Kevin Carson | The Isocracy Network: For Liberty and Common Wealth, by Kevin Carson, 3 Nov 2009


Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, by Kevin Carson, 1 Mar 2007
Electronic text available at