Anarchist doctrine proposed by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society with free markets and occupation and use, or usufruct property norms. One implementation of this scheme involves the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration. Mutualism is based on a version of the labor theory of value holding that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility". Mutualism originated from the writings of philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.


Anarchism, by Voltairine de Cleyre, Free Society, 13 Oct 1901
Examines various economic propositions for anarchism (socialist, communist, individualist and mutualist) and opines that all could be tried out
"Anarchist Mutualism is a modification of the program of Individualism, laying more emphasis upon organization, co-operation and free federation of the workers. To these the trade union is the nucleus of the free cooperative group, which will obviate the necessity of an employer, issue time-checks to its members, take charge of the finished product, exchange with different trade groups for their mutual advantage through the central federation, enable its members to utilize their credit, and likewise insure them against loss."
Mutualism: An interview with Kevin Carson | The Isocracy Network: For Liberty and Common Wealth, by Kevin Carson, 3 Nov 2009


Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, by Kevin Carson, 1 Mar 2007
Electronic text available at

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mutualism (economic theory)" as of 30 Oct 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.