Liberty to practice any or no religion


Amendment I to the U.S. Constitution
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. ..."


A Letter Concerning Toleration, by John Locke, 1689
Originally "Epistolia de Tolerentia", translated by William Popple
"First, Because the Care of Souls is not committed to the Civil Magistrate any more than to other Men. It is not committed unto him, I say, by God; because it appears not that God has ever given any such Authority to one Man over another, as to compell any one to his Religion. Nor can any such Power be vested in the Magistrate by the Consent of the People; because no man can so far abandon the care of his own Salvation, as blindly to leave it to the choice of any other, whether Prince or Subject, to prescribe to him what Faith or Worship he shall embrace."
An Arrow against all Tyrants, by Richard Overton, 12 Oct 1646
Letter addressed to "Mr Henry Marten, a member of the House of Commons", after two months in Newgate Prison having been arrested for publishing "An Alarum to the House of Lords"
"And (sir) the oppressions, usurpations, and miseries from this prerogative head are not the sole cause of our grievance and complaint, but in especial, the most unnatural, tyrannical, blood-thirsty desires and continual endeavours of the clergy against the contrary-minded in matters of conscience ... it seems these cruel minded men to their brethren, have ... procured a most Romish inquisition ordinance to obtain an admission into the House ... you may see what bloody-minded men those of the black presbytery be ... to brand, hang, judge and condemn all for felons that are not like themselves."
An Independent Judiciary: Edward Coke, by Jim Powell, The Triumph of Liberty, 4 Jul 2000
Lengthy biographical essay
"Although Coke embraced conventional religious beliefs, he promoted religious toleration. As Chief Justice of common law courts, he worked to keep many cases out of ecclesiastical courts which sentenced religious dissenters to be tortured, imprisoned or burned. ... Coke issued 'prohibitions' to curb the power of ecclesiastical courts, especially the High Commission, which imprisoned individuals for preaching Nonconformist doctrines. A prohibition ordered an ecclesiastical court not to proceed with a case if it might belong in a common law court."
Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order, by Wendy McElroy, Literature of Liberty, 1981
Bibliographical essay covering the people and radical movements that influenced Tucker in his founding and publishing of Liberty, its major themes and contributors
"Freethought was probably the first radical influence in Tucker's life. Born, as previously mentioned, of a Quaker father and a radical Unitarian mother, he was raised in New Bedford, Massachusetts, then a center of Quakerism and religious dissent. In this atmosphere of religious freedom, Tucker clearly recalled '"sitting steadily under the radical preaching" of the Reverend Mr. Potter, who rejected all dogmatic authority, whether of church organizations, scriptures, or creeds, and asserted individual freedom of belief.'"
Don't Fund Religious Groups, by Sheldon Richman, Jun 2001
Argues against President George W. Bush's proposal to give taxpayers' money to religious organizations
"He heaps high praise on those groups. But has it occurred to him that their success may have something to do to with their distance from government? Yet he proposes to close that distance. We already know what happens when private groups get too close to government. They lose their autonomy. ... Moreover, there is no way that the program can avoid funding religion — which is anathema in a free society. The Bush folks assure us the money won't be used this way, but they are being disingenuous."
Dump the Contraception Mandate and All the Rest, by Sheldon Richman, 3 Jan 2014
Questions advocates of mandating employers to pay for "insurance" coverage of contraceptives
"It is the government's decree — not the employers who object to it — that violates religious liberty. Those who favor the mandate say repeatedly that employers who would refuse to pay for their employees' contraceptives because of religious scruples would be denying women access to contraception. That is obviously a lie, sheer demagogy. No woman would be prohibited from obtaining contraceptive products because her employer refused to pay."
Introductory, by John Stuart Mill, On Liberty, 1859
Chapter I
"The only case in which the higher ground has been taken on principle and maintained with consistency, by any but an individual here and there, is that of religious belief ... The great writers to whom the world owes what religious liberty it possesses, have mostly asserted freedom of conscience as an indefeasible right, and denied absolutely that a human being is accountable to others for his religious belief. Yet so natural to mankind is intolerance in whatever they really care about, that religious freedom has hardly anywhere been practically realized ..."
John Lilburne: The First English Libertarian, by Peter Richards, 29 Mar 2008
Detailed biographical essay of "Freeborn John" concluding with reasons to use the modern term "libertarian" for him
"This was followed by the Whitehall Debates which began on December 14. The second Agreement of the People (or Foundations of Freedom) was presented to the council of officers for consideration. There was much discussion and disagreement about religious toleration. The army grandees wanted to restrict toleration so that Jews, atheists, Unitarians, and Catholics were excluded. The Levellers, by contrast, were far in advance of their own era, because of their principled demand for a more inclusive toleration."
John Locke's Top 5 Radical Political Ideas, by Brandon Turner, 29 Aug 2016
Brief discussion of "five features of Locke's political thought that remain particularly important": natural equality, property, consent, resistance and toleration
"In A Letter Concerning Toleration, published in 1689, Locke presents a number of arguments against forced religious conformity. Two of these are of particular interest: on the one hand, Locke argues that religious faith rests outside the purview of political society—that the religious beliefs of its citizens is not the business of government; on the other hand, he argues, political power refers to physical force, and true belief simply cannot be forced."
Related Topics: Government, John Locke, Property
Michiganistan?, by Leon Drolet, Liberty, Jun 2003
"Why do some U.S. states join Islamic theocracies in having draconian laws against private, adult, consensual sex acts? ... When Jesus told the Pharisees to separate that belonging to God from that belonging to the state, he introduced for the first time the concept of a separation of the interests of religion and government."
Related Topic: Michigan
Milton, John (1608-1674), by Antony Flew, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"Although in one sonnet Milton referred to the Lord Protector as 'our chief of men,' privately he grew concerned with the antirepublican implications of such a title, the more so as he saw Cromwell move to revive the House of Lords and, worse, reestablish a state-run, state-controlled Church of England. Thus, at Cromwell's death, Milton revised and republished his first defense of the Commonwealth and followed it with a new work emphasizing the importance of separating church and state, in the hope of seeing the nation return to a republican form of government."
Religion and Freedom, by Robert Sirico, Future of Freedom, Dec 1993
Religion and the Constitution, by Thomas Sowell, 28 Jun 2002
Should Government Run Churches ... or Schools?, by Scott McPherson, 27 Dec 2002
The Authority of a Foreign Talisman: A Study of U.S. Constitutional Practice as Authority in Nineteenth Century Argentina and the Argentine Elite's Leap of Faith, by Jonathan M. Miller, American University Law Review, Jun 1997
Examines the history of Argentine law prior to adoption of the 1853 Constitution, the arguments in Alberdi's Bases and the influence of the U.S. Constitution during the remainder of the 19th century and up to 1930
"During the debate on freedom of religion, Gutiérrez responded to conservative critics from an Alberdian perspective, arguing that it would be impossible to attract foreigners without allowing them to practice their religion. His opponents, alarmed by this aspect of the Alberdi draft, indicated that the people of their provinces were distressed by Alberdi's emphasis on religious freedom and that Catholic immigration could satisfy Argentina's needs."
The Morality of Drug Controls, by Thomas Szasz, Future of Freedom, Apr 1990
Condensed from an article in Dealing With Drugs: Consequences of Government Control, 1987, Ronad Hamowy (editor)
"The answer to these questions lies basically in the fact that our society is therapeutic in much the same sense in which medieval Spanish society was theocratic. ... the men and women living in a theocratic society did not believe in the separation of church and state but, on the contrary, fervently embraced their union ... The First Amendment's protection of religious freedom exemplifies this posture: Americans are not expected to look to the government to provide them with those religious beliefs and organizations that are good for them, while protecting them against those that are bad for them."

Cartoons and Comic Strips

An Unholy Union, by Ann Telnaes, 24 May 2004
Tonight's Debate: Should Religion Play a Bigger Role in U.S. Government?, by Tom Toles, The Washington Post, 30 Aug 2004