Nineteenth century British economics writer, critic of "capitalism"
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  • Thomas Hodgskin (12 December 1787 – 21 August 1869) was an English socialist writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of free trade and early trade unions. (In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the term "socialist" included any opponent of capitalism, which was construed as a political system built on privileges for the owners of capital.)

    Reference

    Hodgskin, Thomas (1787-1869), by George H. Smith, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Thomas Hodgskin was one of the most original libertarian theorists in Victorian England. ... Hodgskin's Popular Political Economy (1827), in addition to its defense of free-market currency, banking, and other libertarian institutions, anticipates some later insights by F. A. Hayek and other Austrian economists, such as the role of prices in transmitting crucial market information in a spontaneous economic order. His greatest contribution to libertarian theory was The Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted (1832), a vigorous defense of natural rights ..."
    Related Topic: Socialism

    Born

    12 Dec 1787, in Chatham, Kent, England

    Died

    21 Aug 1869, in Feltham, England

    Articles

    Herbert Spencer: Liberty and Unlimited Human Progress, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Apr 1995
    Lengthy biographical profile, highlighting Social Statics and his acquaintance with Andrew Carnegie
    "In November 1848, he was offered an editorial position at the Economist, the free trade journal, where he worked for five years. One of the editors was Thomas Hodgskin, a philosophical anarchist who might have influenced him."
    UpdReal Liberalism and the Law of Nature, by Sheldon Richman, 10 Aug 2007
    Examines Hodgskin's introductory letter to Henry Brougham, a Member of Parliament (later Lord Chancellor), written in 1829, published in The Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted
    "Thomas Hodgskin ... deserves to be better known than he is. Hodgskin was an early editor of The Economist and an important influence on Herbert Spencer ... calling him a socialist is bound to confuse. He was indeed a critic of 'capitalism,' by which he and others back then meant government intervention on behalf of capital to the prejudice of labor. But he was no advocate of state control of the means of production. On the contrary, he was influenced by the radical market economist J. B. Say and believed violations of laissez faire, such as tariffs, are what exploited workers by depriving them of their full, market-derived product."
    The Natural Right of Property: Not to be confused with government-created artificial rights, by Sheldon Richman, 17 Aug 2007
    Examines Hodgskin writings in The Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted
    "Thomas Hodgskin (1787-1869), the English economics writer ..., is an enigma — until his philosophy is seen in its entirety. He was an editor at The Economist of London from 1846 to 1855, during the period author Scott Gordon called 'the high tide of laissez faire, yet he is considered a Ricardian socialist, was quoted and deferred to by Marx [and] described by Sidney and Beatrice Webb as Marx’s master.' How could any libertarian claim Hodgskin as a mentor?"
    Related Topic: Property Rights
    The Singular Henry George: Insights and Influence, by David S. D'Amato, 22 Oct 2014
    Discusses George's early life, the main arguments made in his writings and the influence and disagreements he had with contemporary and later radicals
    "After all, George's thought is part of a tradition we might think of as the free market left, or perhaps left-wing individualism, a tradition that includes early British socialists such as Thomas Hodgskin. Like George and Tucker, Hodgskin did not inculpate free markets for existing economic problems, injustices, or inequalities; indeed, his socialism and defenses of labor were based on the argument that the relationships and structures of existing capitalism were nothing like the laissez faire markets described by the political economists."
    The State Is No Friend of the Worker, by Sheldon Richman, 24 Oct 2014
    Discusses how the state interferes with setting wage rates and quotes Thomas Hodgskin on how to reward workers properly
    "One thinker who understood how the worth of labor is determined in the market was the radical libertarian English writer Thomas Hodgskin (1787–1869). ... Hodgskin is usually labeled a Ricardian socialist, but Hodgskin criticized David Ricardo while lauding Adam Smith. ... As a libertarian champion of labor against state-privileged capital, Hodgskin had much to say about how just wages should be determined."
    Related Topic: Wages

    Books Authored

    UpdThe Natural and Artificial Right of Property Contrasted, 1832
    Partial contents: The Natural Right of Property - The Legal Right of Property - On the Right of Property in Land - The Legal Right of Property is Undergoing Subversion by the Natural Right of Property - The Law-maker does not Establish Rights
    Related Topic: Property Rights

    The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Thomas Hodgskin" as of 27 Jun 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.