Law, Property Rights, and Air Pollution
, by Murray N. Rothbard
, Cato Journal
Examines the principles of tort law, how to determine what is just property and how to deal with invasions of property such as air pollution
"... statistical correlation ... cannot establish causation ... if lung cancer rates are higher among cigarette smokers than noncigarette smokers, this does not in itself establish proof of causation. The very fact that many smokers never get lung cancer and that many lung cancer sufferers have never smoked indicates that there are other complex variables at work."
Risk and Safety
, by Aaron Wildavsky and Adam Wildavsky, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics
Discusses the increase since the 1950s in government regulation of risks to health and safety, and the views of proponents and opponents of a "riskless society"
"On the other side of the ledger, cancer deaths continue to rise, though their increase has slowed, and deaths from major cardiovascular diseases remain high. Why these discrepancies? Cancer is largely a disease of old age. When people died at roughly half the present life expectancy, they died before they had an opportunity, if one may call it that, to get cancer. ... If threshold or hormesis effects apply, then the cancers animals develop as a result of being subjected to huge doses in short periods tell us essentially nothing about the reactions of human beings."