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Practical application of engineering or technical processes

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings.

Notable Topics


Bastiat on the Socialization of Wealth, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Dec 2014
Explains what Bastiat meant when saying that real wealth is constantly passing from the realm of (private) property to that of the "communal domain" (communauté, or community in the original French)
In a competitive marketplace with advancing technology, as the effort required to produce and, hence, acquire things diminishes, the price of gaining utility falls. For example, if the average worker had to work two hours, 40 minutes, to buy a chicken in 1900, but only 14 minutes as the 21st century approached (actual statistics), Bastiat would say the chicken "is obtained for less expenditure of human effort; less service is performed as it passes from hand to hand ..." In other words, most of the utility that had to be paid for with painful effort in 1900 was free by 2000.
Billions Served: Norman Borlaug interviewed by Ronald Bailey, by Norman Borlaug, Ronald Bailey, Reason, Apr 2000
Topics discussed include his current projects, Africa, roads, DDT, biotech, crossing genetic barriers in nature, biodiversity, monarch butterflies, organic produce, Lester Brown, Paul Ehrlich, India and the Green Revolution
Biotechnology will help us do things that we couldn't do before, and do it in a more precise and safe way. Biotechnology will allow us to cross genetic barriers that we were never able to cross with conventional genetics and plant breeding. In the past, conventional plant breeders were forced to bring along many other genes with the genes, say, for insect or disease resistance that we wanted to incorporate in a new crop variety. These extra genes often had negative effects, and it took years of breeding to remove them. Conventional plant breeding is crude in comparison to the methods that are being used with genetic engineering.
The "Boomerang Effect": How Foreign Policy Changes Domestic Policy, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 26 Sep 2014
Reviews the essay "Perfecting Tyranny: Foreign Intervention as Experimentation in State Controll" by Christopher Coyne and Abigail Hall, published in the Fall 2014 issue of the Independent Review
The last channel is the one through which physical capital, like social capital, changes under the influence of interventionist policies: "Technological innovations allow governments to utilize lower-cost methods of social control with a greater reach not only over foreign populations, but also over domestic citizens. Examples of such methods include but are not limited to surveillance and monitoring technologies, hardware and equipment for maintaining control of citizens, and weapons for killing enemies." Interventionist policies will require particular kinds of equipment and technologies ...
Bundling and unbundling, by Thomas Sowell, 13 Apr 1998
Argues that the government should not be telling Microsoft (or any other company) what it can or cannot bundle in one of its software products or otherwise interfere in private transactions, except for holding sellers responsible for what they sell
It is a frustrating business to phone one of the computer companies' technical support systems and be told that what you have is a software problem, not a hardware problem. Then you phone the software company's technical support people, who tell you that you have a hardware problem and that you should call the computer company ... Back in 1956, the government forced Eastman Kodak to stop selling Kodachrome film with the developing included. Because developing Kodachrome is more complicated than developing most other color films, Kodak sold it with the processing included, so that they could see that it got done right.
Related Topic: Government
The Death of Politics, by Karl Hess, Playboy, Mar 1969
Discusses libertarianism, contrasting it with both conservatism and modern liberalism, including specific policy differences
Monopoly cannot develop as long as technology is dynamic, which it most abundantly is today ... As long as one brain remains unavailable, there is the chance of innovation and competition ... Nor does technological breakthrough always depend on vast resources ... Short of total state control, and presuming creative brains ... and presuming the existence of capital with which to build even modest research facilities, few would flatly say that technological innovation could be prevented simply because of some single source enjoying a temporary "monopoly" of a given product or service.
The Economic Role of Saving and Capital Goods, by Ludwig von Mises, The Freeman, Aug 1963
Explains there is a third factor of production aside from nature's resouces and human labor, and also that entrepreneurial judgement is necessary to attain the desired end of production
What distinguishes contemporary life in the countries of Western civilization from conditions as they prevailed in earlier ages ... is ... not the familiarity with the exploits of pure science and their utilization by the applied sciences, by technology. ... What these poor countries need in order to adopt the Western methods of mass production for the satisfaction of the wants of the masses is not information about a 'know how.' There is no secrecy about technological methods.
Felix Morley: The Journalist Philosopher, by Oscar B. Johannsen, Fragments, 1985
Biographical essay based on Morley's autobiography For the Record, contrasting the Brontë sisters with the Morley brothers (Christopher, Felix and Frank) but focusing on Felix
Morley assumed that tremendous technological advances made political integration necessary. However, in this assumption he probably erred. If anything, the ongoing technological revolution has made necessary the disintegration of state, national, and international political organizations. Just as a pilot of a jet plane is forced to rely on the automatic controls which fly the plane almost independently of him, so the advancement of technological knowledge requires the automatic controls of the natural laws of economic and social action, with political control, like that of a pilot's, reduced to a minimum.
Related Topics: Felix Morley, Politics, The State
George Reisman - Hero of the Day, The Daily Objectivist, 2000
Biographical profile published by The Daily Objectivist
Reisman credits to two technological artifacts of Western civilization with helping him pull off such a difficult long-term project ,,, '[A] very important element in the pleasure I have derived from the writing of this book rested on my use of a personal computer. ... I fully believed, of course, that the pen is mightier than the sword .. But however mighty is the pen, the personal computer is far mightier...To me, as a writer, the personal computer is the greatest of all the remarkable goods supplied by capitalism, surpassing even the personal automobile in its contribution to the ease and enjoyment of life.'
Related Topic: George Reisman
Hess, Karl (1923-1994), by Brian Doherty, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical and bibliographical essay
In his 1979 book, Community Technology, Hess wrote candidly of some of the successes and of the many failures that attended his efforts to turn his Adams-Morgan neighborhood in D.C. into a self-sufficient community through rooftop hydroponic gardens and trout aquaculture in basements ... He regarded his new [welding] vocation as consistent with the view that human technologies have been more important to the spread of liberty than political philosophers or ideologues. From 1980 to 1985, he edited a newsletter titled Surviving Tomorrow, in which he emphasized small-scale alternative technologies over big centralized ones.
Related Topics: Karl Hess, Libertarianism
The Importance of Tools, by Karl Hess, Freedom Daily, Apr 1993
Contrasts scientific and technological discoveries or inventions with political events throughout the history of humankind
Perhaps the first great tool of change was the horsecollar or ox yoke. It was the tool which first enabled human beings to use a non-human source for energy. Even the discovery of fire seems pallid beside this. ... Isaac Newton described differential calculus. In some distant future, private space travellers will owe their journeys, in no small part, to Newton and his analysis. ... In America, the Wright brothers’ plane successfully flew. ... That was also the year that Crick, Wilkins, and Watson received their Nobel prize for describing the molecular structure of DNA.
Related Topic: Politics
Intellectual Property Fosters Corporate Concentration, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 10 Jan 2014
After describing and providing references on the case against IP laws, reviews Butler Shaffer's monograph "A Libertarian Critique of Intellectual Property" (2013), particularly the point that "IP tends to concentrate wealth in large business firms"
[Shaffer] writes,
... Patents and copyrights inhibit the creative process ... If one scientist has been issued a patent for his invention of a widget, another scientist would likely be discouraged from continuing his own work on a similar product ... when driven by the rewards of patents, scientists and inventors are known to maintain secrecy in their laboratories and research ...
The technological revolution has been dramatically lowering the price of capital goods, making competitive, small-scale, nonhierarchical enterprises by independent individuals and peer groups more feasible than ever.
Intersecting Currents of Change, by Kevin Carson, 1 Jul 2013
Discusses how different forces, such as technogical change, counteract the hierarchies of corporations and states
Sometimes, improvements in networked communications and cybernetic technologies reinforce the shift in military balance of power from the United States and its allies to dissident regional powers ... Sometimes states, in attempting to undermine rival states' control of their domestic populations, create liberatory technologies that undermine not only their rivals' power but their own. For example the Tor router, originally developed by the U.S. military to aid dissidents in countries like Iran, now undermines the NSA's ability to keep the American domestic population under surveillance ...
Is Free Trade Obsolete? Part 1, by Sheldon Richman, Freedom Daily, Apr 2004
Critiques a Paul Craig Roberts and Charles Schumer article arguing against free trade due to a "new economic era", introducing first the law of comparative advantage
[T]he mobility provided by the Internet [has] produced competition ... unprecedented in U.S. history. They offer two examples:
Over the next three years, a major New York securities firm plans to replace its team of 800 American software engineers, each of whom earns about $150,000 per year, with an equally competent team in India earning an average of only $20,000 per year. Second, within five years the number of radiologists in this country is expected to decline significantly because MRI data can be sent over the Internet to Asian radiologists capable of diagnosing the problem at a small fraction of the cost.
Is Free Trade Obsolete? Part 2, by Sheldon Richman, Freedom Daily, May 2004
After providing a numerical example of the law of comparative advantage, defends it from the argument (made by Roberts and Schumer) that movable factors of production make the law no longer applicable
It is certainly true that because of cheap telecommunications, low-cost foreign labor is now able to provide services to Americans that couldn't have been provided even a short time ago ... Several years ago low-cost foreign labor started making computer memory chips, and predictions of the demise of the U.S. high-tech sector were rife. It didn't work out that way. Instead, the price of memory chips plummeted, making computers pervasive throughout manufacturing and the service industries. Productivity skyrocketed. American chipmakers switched to innovative higher-end work.
Letters to Mr. Malthus, on Several Subjects of Political Economy, and on the Cause of the Stagnation of Commerce, by Jean-Baptiste Say, 1820
Full title: Lettres à M. Malthus, sur différens sujets d'économie politique, notamment sur les causes de la stagnation générale du commerce
Series of five letters from Say to Malthus, written in response to the latter's criticisms in Principles of Political Economy (1820); the letters were translated from the French by John Richter
What difference do you perceive between knitting-needles and a stocking-frame, but that the latter is a tool more complex and more efficient ..., applying ... the properties of metal, and the power of the lever, to fabricate the vestments with which we cover our feet and legs? The question is ... this:—Is it advantageous for man to take into his hands a tool more powerful, capable of doing a much greater quantity of work, or of doing it much better, in preference to another tool of a gross and imperfect construction, with which he must work more slowly, with greater toil, and less perfection?
Lincoln-Worship Overlays the Corporatist Agenda, by Kevin Carson, Future of Freedom, Mar 2014
Review of Rich Lowry's Lincoln Unbound: How an Ambitious Young Railsplitter Saved the American Dream—and How We Can Do It Again (2013)
The economy that emerged from the railroad land grants ... was not even the best way to integrate new technology such as electrical-power generation and electrically powered machinery into production ... Kropotkin celebrated the possibilities of electrical power for destroying the primary rationale for the large factory: the need to economize on power from prime movers by running as many machines as possible off belts from the drive shaft on a single steam engine. The electric motor meant that a prime mover could be built into each machine; hence the machines could be sited as close as possible to the point of consumption ...
Minimum Wage Rates, by Ludwig von Mises, Human Action, 1949
Chapter 30, "Interference With the Structure of Prices", Section 3; discusses the setting of minimun wages both by legislation and by collecitve bargaining, pointing out some of the resulting problems
The technological improvement in the production of A makes it possible to realize certain projects which could not be executed before because the workers required were employed for the production of A for which consumers' demand was more urgent. ... Mere technological knowledge is of no use if the capital needed is lacking. ... A tendency toward higher wage rates is not the cause, but the effect, of technological improvement.
Monopolies versus the Free Market, Part 1, by Gregory Bresiger, Freedom Daily, Sep 2006
Contrasts state-backed monopolies or quasi-monopolies vs. regular businesses in a free market, with historical and current examples, and discusses antitrust laws
Today Microsoft is a software giant. But its commanding market share is by no means assured. That's because its power is non-coercive and, therefore, it must worry about competitors ... Google, Mozilla, and Linux pose challenges to Microsoft's domination. Microsoft must also always worry about new competitors offering new kinds of technology that could suddenly take away market share. Yet antitrust regulators have had Microsoft in their sights for many years. In the 1980s, the regulators had IBM in their cross-hairs, only for their antitrust case to collapse after some 15 years of futility.
Natural Resources Aren't Finite, by Julian Simon, Cato Institute Commentary, 4 Mar 1997
Discusses losses incurred by commodities traders and investment managers who believed that prices of commodities must rise because there is a "finite" stock of natural resources on Earth
... science is attaining an undreamed-of ability to create new materials. The first auto-engine parts made of silicon and carbon (water-pump seal rings) are being installed in Volkswagens. Engines could soon be made of silicon carbide, cutting weight and emissions in addition to replacing metals. Palladium instead of platinum can now be used in auto-exhaust emission systems. Ceramics engineering is exploding with new knowledge, putting an end to past generations' worries about running out of metals. Organic plastics can now be blended with glass to yield a material as strong as concrete, but flexible and much lighter.
Related Topic: Economic Resources
Objectivist Ethics in the Information-Age Economy, by Nathaniel Branden, Navigator, Feb 2001
After reviewing human progress, from hunter to farmer to laborer to thinker, argues that what he calls "Objectivist ethics" are more relevant to current society
Scientific and technological discoveries are pouring from our research-and-development laboratories at an unprecedented rate ... The value of the computer ... lies not in its material constituents, but in its design, in the thinking and knowledge it embodies ... Microchips are made out of sand; their value is a function of the intelligence encoded within them. A copper wire can carry 48 telephone conversations; a single fiber-optic cable can carry more than eight thousand conversations—yet fiber-optic cables are cheaper, more efficient, and much less energy-consuming to produce than copper.
Parity: Bureaucratic Tyranny by Moral Fraud, by James Bovard, Freedom Daily, Sep 1999
Discusses the consequences of establishing "parity" for agricultural prices, in the name of "fairness", as was done by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 (and subsequent legislation)
The parity formula ... completely ignored the revolution in farm production and the fall in crop-production costs ... from the introduction of tractors ... [C]rop prices have fallen primarily because modern technology, better seeds, better fertilizers, and better-educated farmers have produced far higher yields and lower costs ... [F]arming underwent a mechanical revolution in the 1920s. Farmers bought almost a million tractors in the 1920s, resulting in a revolution in productivity ... Yet, farm subsidy advocates choose to completely ignore the technological revolutions of modern agriculture.
Pleasing Consumers Isn't Easy, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 12 Jan 2007
Comments on the challenges faced by entrepreneurs, in particular those selling "high-tech gadgets", shortly after Steve Jobs announced the first Apple iPhone
People want to sell us things such as portable music players, mobile phones, and personal digital assistants (PDAs; small electronic calendars, notebooks, and the like). Many of us want one or more of those things, and entrepreneurs know that. But their knowledge is very general. What they are far less certain of are the scads of details involved. How much are we willing to pay? What combination of features do we want? Should a phone play music? Should a PDA be able to make calls? Do you want a camera with that? Should everything be rolled into one electronic Swiss army knife? They don't know.
The Primacy of Freedom, by Brian Summers, The Freeman, Feb 1988
One of over 20 essays in the anthology Ideas on Liberty: Essays in Honor of Paul L. Poirot (1987), discussing why the freedom philosophy and economic and moral education are important
We should ask ourselves why so many human advances have come from relatively free societies. We should ask why totalitarian nations not only have to steal our technology, they can't even feed their own people. Consider ... medical care ... [V]isit a hospital and marvel at the medicines and medical technology. Can you explain why these advances are available now, after several centuries of relative freedom in a few capitalist countries, while for thousands of years and in most nations the diseases we now conquer as a matter of course were a death sentence? Why here? Why now? And why not sooner?
Reason 35th Anniversary Banquet Remarks, by Robert W. Poole, Jr., 5 Nov 2003
Remembrances of 35 years, focusing on Reason magazine and the Reason Foundation, but also contrasting the late 1960s to the early 2000s in terms of both technology and government intervention
Looking back over the past 35 years, it's amazing how much the world has changed, and generally for the better. Just consider all the things we take for granted today, that did not exist in 1968, like:
  • Federal Express,
  • ATMs everywhere you look,
  • cell phones from competing phone companies,
  • real price competition in airline service,
  • video recorders,
  • personal computers,
  • the Internet ...
the list goes on and on. These things were made possible by a combination of technology and significant reduction of government control.
Risk and Safety, by Aaron Wildavsky, Adam Wildavsky, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics
Discusses the increase since the 1950s in government regulation of risks to health and safety, and the views of proponents and opponents of a "riskless society"
Contrary to common opinion, living in a rich, industrialized, technologically advanced country that makes considerable use of industrial chemicals and nuclear power is a lot healthier than living in a poor, nonindustrialized nation that uses little modern technology and few industrial chemicals. ... Surveys of risk perception show that knowledge of the known hazards of a technology does not determine whether or to what degree an individual thinks a given technology is safe or dangerous. This holds true not only for laymen, but also for experts in risk assessment.
Related Topics: Cancer, Health
The Security State's Reaction to Snowden Shows Why It's Doomed, by Kevin Carson, 9 Aug 2013
Comments on the differing behavior between networks and hierarchies and how the responses by the hierarchical national security state to the Manning and Snowden leaks tend to be counterproductive to the State's ends
All this is happening even as surveillance agencies are deluged with ever-increasing, unmanageable amounts of raw data. The ratio of hay to needles is growing exponentially. The larger the volume of raw data to be analyzed algorithmically, the larger the number of false positives the system generates. The sheer volume of false positives, and the ratio of false positives to genuine leads, is enough to paralyze government ... The Snowden scandal resulted in a spike in adoption of measures like PGP encryption and TOR browsing. Even as the NSA is hoovering up more and more hay, more and more needles quietly remove themselves from the haystack.
Related Topic: The State
The Third Industrial Revolution: Not As Easy to Co-opt as the Second, by Kevin Carson, 8 Jun 2013
Compares the first (steam and hydraulic power) and second (electric power) industrial revolutions with the new micromanufacturing and networked communications technologies and the ability of dominant players to co-opt the third revolution
The prime movers that powered industrial machinery—typically steam engines or water wheels—were very large and expensive, so it made sense to concentrate ... machines ... in one building and power them all with belts running to a central drive shaft. The electric motor eliminated this ... Since you could build a prime mover into each machine, it became economical to site it near ... consumption and then scale ... to fit demand. The ideal production model for taking full advantage of this new technology's potential would be craft production in small shops using general-purpose electrical machinery to produce for the local market ...
Related Topic: The State
Who Is Garet Garrett?, by Jeffrey Tucker, Mises Daily, 25 Oct 2007
Biographical and bibliographical essay, including both his novels and non-fiction writing
[Garrett's] next novel is his epoch story of steel. It is The Cinder Buggy (1923) ... In the course of the story, the reader discovers how it is that technology has such a dramatic effect on society ... We also have here a realistic portrayal of the truth about innovation. It is not enough to come up with a good idea. That idea must be embodied in real production that takes place in a cost-reducing way, and then marketed in the service of society. The unity of technology, accounting, and marketing must all come together to make possible such things as technological revolutions.
Why Intellectuals Still Support Socialism, by Peter G. Klein, Mises Daily, 15 Nov 2006
Examines the underlying reasons why so many academics support socialist ideas, not reflecting those of the general population, and how this changed from the mid-20th century
What does the future hold? ... [T]here are encouraging signs. The main reason is technology. The web has challenged the state-university and state-media cartels as never before. You don't need a PhD to write for Wikipedia. What does the rise of the ... new means of sharing information ... imply ...? ... [A]s universities become more vocationally oriented, they will find it hard to compete with ... technology-intensive institutions such as DeVry ... and ... Phoenix, the fastest-growing US universities. Home schooling, the costs of which are greatly lowered by technology, is also on the rise.
Why is Medical Care so Expensive?, by Hans Sennholz, Mises Daily, 22 Aug 2006
Discusses various explanations given for the explosion in medical expenses and then focuses on some of the more likely culprits behind the increased costs
Medical expenses are rising faster than the costs of any other service ... Many observers offer lucid explanations of the medical-spending explosion ... Other observers hold the endless stream of medical innovations responsible for rapidly rising health-care costs, such as new drugs and delicate tools for microsurgery. They lay most of the expense explosion at the feet of technology. But these writers never explain why new drugs and new tools should raise medical costs threefold and consume an ever larger share of national income. Technical innovations usually lower the costs of production.
Related Topics: Health Care, Politics, Taxation


John Gilmore on inflight activism, spam and sarongs, by John Gilmore, Mikael Pawlo, GrepLaw, 18 Aug 2004
Topics discussed include: terrorism, the drug war, encryption, censorship, spam, the end-to-end principle, the right to travel, anonymity, secret FAA/TSA rules, blogs, copy protection, free software and the EFF
# Has the EFF succeeded? ...
... [I]f you look back, you can see some major victories:
  • Many forms of expression have been rapidly enhanced by computer technology, without being throttled in the cradle by vested interests ... The Internet and the Web synergized with digital media creation and editing, providing a cheap and powerful distribution path. High bandwidth distribution of large files, including music, movies, and software, is now automated, and EFF helped to keep these networks free to operate despite powerful opposition.
The Kirznerian Way: An Interview with Israel M. Kirzner, by Israel Kirzner, Austrian Economics Newsletter, 1997
Topics discussed include Ludwig von Mises, the Austrian School, equilibrium, entrepreneurship, capital, business cycle theory, time preference, Hayek, Lachmann and Rothbard
KIRZNER: Imagine Victorian England, where everything is calm and still, with horse carriages and trains carrying people here and there. Along comes the entrepreneur who invents the automobile ... People lose jobs and physical resources are shifted to new lines of production ... [W]hen the entrepreneur discovers the automobile, he ... is identifying what was in fact waiting to be introduced. Technological knowledge was being misapplied. Resources were being wasted on trains, carriages, and bicycles, when, in fact, what was waiting to be put together was this new gadget called the automobile.
Wendy McElroy on Sex, Rape and Libertarian Feminism, by Wendy McElroy, Anthony Wile, 11 Mar 2012
Topics discussed include McElroy's early life, two of her notable books, individualist anarchism, voluntarism, conspiracy theories, religions, banks and money, feminism, capitalism, Austrian economics, Julian Assange and the future
Wendy McElroy: [The Internet] is a huge force for freedom in much the same way as the printing press. It delivers ... information ..., enabling people to ... break down many of the age-old barriers ... [It] has made it more difficult for governments and other elite to keep secrets or tell lies. Science and technology contains the great hope for mankind. Of course, the Internet is also a powerful tool in the hands of the elite who have used it to bad ends and who want control ... to use it to worse ones ... Ultimately, however, I believe [it] empowers the individual more than it can harm us.


Community Technology
    by Karl Hess, Carol Moore (introduction), 1979
Relates a five-year experiment in the Adam-Morgan neighborhood of Washington, D.C. where Hess and many others participated to make it as self-sufficient as possible
The Half-Life of Policy Rationales: How New Technology Affects Old Policy Issues
    by Fred E. Foldvary (editor), Daniel B. Klein (editor), Cato Institute, 2003
Contents: Metering, Excluding, and Charging: Technology, marine conservation, and fisheries management - Quality Assurance and Consumer Protection: Technology and the case for free banking - Natural Monopoly? - Other Areas of Policy
Release 2.0: A Design For Living in the Digital Age
    by Esther Dyson, Oct 1997
Release 2.1: A Design For Living in the Digital Age
    by Esther Dyson, Oct 1998
The Upgraded Edition of Release 2.0


Peter Thiel on Facebook, Technology, and the Higher Education Bubble, by Peter Thiel, Reason TV, 12 Nov 2010
Peter discusses The Social Network movie, the Hollywood vs. the Silicon Valley views of reality, PayPal, Zimbabwe and money, seasteading and freedom to leave a State, and college

Why Political Liberty Depends on Software Freedom More Than Ever, by Eben Moglen, FOSDEM, 5 Feb 2011
Discusses the problems of relying on centralised network services controlled by untrustworthy entities and the need to build alternative networks

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Technology" as of 23 Nov 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.