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Territory in southern Asia, ruled since 1947 by the Bhārat Gaṇarājya

India (IAST: Bhārat), also known the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Geographical type: Territory

Latitude: 21° N — Longitude: 78° E

Area: 3,166,391 km²

ISO 3166-2 code: IN

Birthplace of

Julie Christie, in Chabua, Assam, on 14 Apr 1940
Mahatma Gandhi, in Porbandar, on 2 Oct 1869
George Orwell, Eric Arthur Blair, in Motihari, on 25 Jun 1903

Deathplace of

Mahatma Gandhi, in New Delhi, on 30 Jan 1948

Measures of Freedom

Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2023: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil, and Economic Freedom
2021: 6.29, Rank: 109, Personal freedom: 6.05, Economic freedom: 6.62
India | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2024
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 77, Political Rights: 2, Civil Liberties: 3
The 'Modi Wave' that swept Prime Minister Narendra Modi to power in the 2014 national elections experienced some setbacks in 2015, with major defeats for his Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in Delhi and Bihar state elections and retreats on key elements of the government's reform agenda. Meanwhile, threats to freedom of expression increased, including intimidation of and attacks against writers, journalists, academics, and bloggers by Hindu extremist groups.
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 6.50, Rank: 112


Billions Served: Norman Borlaug interviewed by Ronald Bailey, by Norman Borlaug, Ronald Bailey, Reason, Apr 2000
Topics discussed include his current projects, Africa, roads, DDT, biotech, crossing genetic barriers in nature, biodiversity, monarch butterflies, organic produce, Lester Brown, Paul Ehrlich, India and the Green Revolution
The projections in food production in India continue to go up on the same slope. When we transferred the Green Revolution wheat technology to India, production was 12 million tons a year. Last year it was 74 million tons, and it is still going up. Once in a while production may go down by a couple of million tons when there's a drought, but in general it continues to go up. Also, the increase in production has occurred with very modest increases in cultivated area. ... India has produced enough and sometimes has a surplus in grain. The problem is to get it into the stomachs of the hungry.
The Criminality of the State, by Albert Jay Nock, The American Mercury, Mar 1939
Cautions Americans that rather than being worried or surprised by the doings of Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia, the Munich agreement and other foreign states, they should devote their energies to reining the growth of the United States government
Our democratic British cousins in India in the Eighteenth Century must have learned their trade from Pizarro and Cortez. Edmund Burke called them "birds of prey and passage." Even the directors of the East India Company admitted that "the vast fortunes acquired in the inland trade have been obtained by a scene of the most tyrannical and oppressive conduct that was ever known in any age or country." Describing a journey, Warren Hastings wrote that "most of the petty towns and serais were deserted at our approach"; the people ran off into the woods at the mere sight of a white man.
The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries, by Antony Flew, The Freeman, Sep 2000
Reviews the tittle 1999 book by James Tooley, which includes surveys of "private education alternatives in 13 developing countries" as well as analysis and recommendations
An example of the willingness and versatility of educational enterprisers comes from India, where computer training in the state universities is poor, producing graduates who are unemployable in today's computing industries. Private enterprise in the form of NIIT (the National Institute for Information Technology), however, offers superior training in its 400 campuses around the country, and employers now regularly state in their job advertisements that they are seeking a GNIIT—a graduate of NIIT. ... On NIIT campuses, all rooms and computers are in use constantly from morning to night—very different from state institutions!
John Bright: Voice of Victorian Liberalism, by Nicholas Elliott, The Freeman, Aug 1988
Biographical essay, discussing in detail many of Bright's activities, in and out of Parliament, such as the repeal of the Corn Laws, opposition to the Crimean War, his view on colonial India and the United States, Parliamentary reform and Ireland
Bright argued that the [Indian] mutiny of 1857 was caused by the ineptitude of colonial government. Capable Indians were excluded from the administration of their own country, positions being allocated instead by personal favor. Bright assailed the economic management which imposed onerous taxes on the Indian peasantry, stunting development to maintain a vast, inefficient Indian civil service ... He also saw the potential for conflict in a country of "twenty nations, speaking twenty different languages," and argued for a confederacy of smaller states.
Liberty in the Ancient World, by Roderick T. Long, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Surveys the ancient civilizations in Sumeria, Hebrew Palestine, China, Greece and the Roman Republic and Empire, and their thoughts and practices about liberty
Posterity's debt to the great civilizations of antiquity is enormous, but this legacy can hardly be regarded as consistently libertarian. Students of the centralized managerial autocracies of Egypt and Persia, for example, or of the rigid caste system of India will examine the records of these societies in vain for ideas and institutions specifically favorable to liberty. In the case of India, Buddhist criticism of violence and of caste distinctions never developed into a full-fledged critique of political power, perhaps because Buddhist teachings emphasized renouncing the world, rather than reforming it.
A New Scheme, by F. A. Harper, The Freeman, Feb 1956
Comments on the implications of a plan whereby the United States government would act as guarantor for private ventures wishing to invest in Indian projects, providing compensation in the event of subsequent nationalization by the Indian government
Private investors here would gladly pour funds into a country like India ... But they fear that the Indian government may one day nationalize the enterprise ... Who will compensate whom under this plan? The United States government would pay citizens for their investment losses, and our government would then "settle with New Delhi." Now the simple solution would seem to be for New Delhi to settle with the private investors in the first place, directly. Why set up a useless intermediary? New Delhi could just mail the check to each investor at his address in India, thus compensating him directly ...
Related Topics: Government, Taxation
Treating People Like Garbage, by Sheldon Richman, The Goal Is Freedom, 4 Oct 2013
Prompted by the "closing" of the U.S. government during Oct 2013, examines two examples of how the state behaves towards people: an Iraq war veteran and his family, and the genocide of Bengalis in March 1971, with the support of Nixon and Kissinger
In [1971], ... democratic India, was nonaligned but friendly with the Soviet Union. When India won independence from Great Britain in 1947, the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. But Muslim Pakistan itself was divided into east and west with India in between ... [In March 1971, after a military crackdown in East Pakistan] 10 million refugees poured into India, "where they died in droves in wretched refugee camps." The onslaught helped spark a war between Pakistan and India (whose hands were also not clean), which ended in a decisive victory for India ...


Interview with Adam Smith [via Edwin West], by E. G. West, The Region, Jun 1994
Professor Edwin G. West stands in for Adam Smith and answers questions from the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis banking and policy issues magazine
Smith: Are the economic premises in America different from those in Asia? ... Milton Friedman finds a remarkable contrast between Hong Kong and India which latter country, he says, received political freedom from the British but subsequently witnessed little in the way of economic freedom. The democracy established in India was used subsequently to churn out legislation that imposed extensive controls over imports, exports, foreign exchange, prices and wages. The result, Friedman argues, is that the standard of life for the great bulk of the Indians has hardly risen compared with 40 years ago.

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "India" as of 25 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.