The general condition of the body; freedom from physical disease or pain
See also:
  • FreedomPedia
  • Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.

    • Cancer - A group of diseases caused by uncontrolled cell division leading to malignant growth
    • Health Care - Preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic and other services related to the health of an individual
    • Life Extension - Methods for slowing or reversing aging and extending human life
    • Medicine - The science and art of preventing, diagnosing and treating disease

    Articles

    Health Care, by Michael F. Cannon, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Discusses various aspects of healthcare from a libertarian perspective: control of contagious diseases, self-directed treatment, occupational licensing, sale of human organs, health insurance, Medicare and Medicaid
    "There exist more unjustified uses of the state's coercive power in health and medicine than in nearly any other area. In the United States, governments routinely forbid competent adults from making medical decisions that affect no one but themselves. Libertarians maintain that such laws are unjust and ultimately counterproductive. For example, the government denies patients, including terminally ill patients, the ability to determine their course of treatment. Proponents argue that such laws exist to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical products. Libertarians argue that those laws cause more morbidity and mortality than they prevent."
    More Evidence That Everything the Government Teaches Us About Eating Is Wrong, by Elizabeth Nolan Brown, 30 Aug 2017
    Discusses the findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology nutitrion study and how they mesh with government sanctioned dietary guidelines
    "The ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) project has found both saturated and unsaturated fat intake linked to better heart health, that a high-carb diet is a better predictor of health risks than fat consumption, and that the health benefits of fruit, vegetables, and legumes like beans and chickpeas may plateau at three to four servings per day. ... Looking at the link between macronutrients and heart disease, researchers found high carbohydrate consumption—defined as diets where more than 60 percent of calories come from carbs—increased the risk of overall death ..."
    Parallels Between Liberty and Health, by Rich Schwartzman, 30 Sep 2011
    Discusses guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration that attempt to regulate nutritional supplements as synthetic food preservatives, in spite of the 1994 Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act, and the advertising concept of "social proof"
    "Some of today's accepted practices, such as osteopathy and chiropractic, were once outlawed without rational justification. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic practices work well without any bureaucratic blessing and without using patented pharmaceuticals that have adverse side effects. People have a natural right to use supplements and herbs, seek alternative modalities, or use the more conventional drug-it-or-cut-it approaches for their health. They don't need a federal bureaucracy, or even a state or corporate bureaucracy to tell them what they must do."
    Pharmaceutical Prices, Patents, and the FDA, by Timothy D. Terrell, 17 Aug 2015
    Comments on a Jeffrey Sachs' article criticizing Gilead Sciences for its pricing (far above production costs) of a hepatitis C medication
    "The American public tends to think of the FDA as a protector against dangerous side effects, as we saw with Thalidomide decades ago. But how many Americans have died because of lags in approval? A five-year delay in bringing the antibiotic Septra to the US market may have cost 80,000 lives. ... The FDA's ban on advertising aspirin as an effective preventer of first heart attacks may have caused the deaths of tens of thousands of Americans every year. But because it's easy to identify those harmed by side effects, and difficult to identify who might have been saved by earlier introduction ... the FDA tends to be over-conservative in its regulatory process."
    Risk and Safety, by Aaron Wildavsky and Adam Wildavsky, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics
    Discusses the increase since the 1950s in government regulation of risks to health and safety, and the views of proponents and opponents of a "riskless society"
    "The health of human beings is a joint product of their genetic inheritance (advice: choose healthy and long-lived parents), their way of life (the poor person who eats regularly and in moderation, exercises, does not smoke, does not drink to excess, is married, and does not worry overly much is likely to be healthier than the rich person who does the opposite), and their wealth (advice: be rich). ... That individuals in rich nations are, on average, far healthier, live far longer, and can do more of the things they want to do at corresponding ages than people in poor countries is a rule without exception."
    Related Topics: Cancer, Technology
    Smoking Bans Are Dangerous to a Free Society's Health, by Thomas A. Firey, The Baltimore Sun, 6 Dec 2006
    Argues against proposed legislation in the city of Baltimore and the state of Maryland to ban smoking in restaurants and bars
    "Proponents justify a ban [on smoking in all bars and restaurants] by arguing that secondhand smoke is a health risk. But all sorts of human activities are risky - from contact sports to rock climbing, from skiing to swimming, from riding a bike to having sex. Yet many people swim, bike and play football because they take pleasure in doing so, and that's their choice. In a liberal society, people are free to make their own risk and lifestyle choices - including whether to smoke. ... all sorts of activities impose risks on others, and again, those people bear those risks willingly."
    Related Topics: Entrepreneurship, Society
    Szasz, Thomas (1920-2012) | Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, by Rod L. Evans, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Historically, behavior classified as mental illness or a form of mental disorder has been wide ranging, including refusal to support oneself through work, reckless gambling, drug habits, unconventional sexual practices, dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance, impulsive violence, and political nonconformity (as in the former Soviet Union). ... Although Dr. Szasz never denies that people can have real problems coping with life and dealing with others, he denies that those problems are properly regarded as a form of illness. What is more, although he acknowledges that some organic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, can influence thought and behavior, he argues that the behavior is never a disease."
    Related Topic: Thomas S. Szasz
    The FDA Thinks Pop Tarts Are Healthier Than Avocados, by Brittany Hunter, 16 Feb 2017
    Discusses the FDA "healthy" food labeling standards and the efforts of one company attempting to revise the FDA rules
    "According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Frosted Flakes cereal and Pop Tarts are healthy foods, but foods containing large amounts of nuts are not. ... Currently, in order to use the term 'healthy' on a product's packaging, the product in question must not exceed three grams of fat. ... this means products like almonds and avocados, which both have enormous health benefits, would be considered, 'unhealthy' by the FDA's standards. ... this is certainly not the first time government science has been found to be inaccurate, one thing that is certain, the FDA's current definition of 'healthy' is absolutely nuts."
    Winning the Battle for Freedom and Prosperity, by John Mackey, Liberty, Jun 2006
    Updated from speech given at FreedomFest 2004; after a brief background on himself, Mackey criticises the freedom movement from a marketing and branding perspective and suggests a different approach by de-emphasising some issues and prioritising others
    "First of all, health is not merely the absence of disease. It is vitality and a sense of well-being. Health is partly about eating a healthy diet. Regular daily exercise and minimizing the poisons we take into our bodies, such as sugar, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine, are also very important. Health is about getting adequate sleep, and also about having a sense of personal life purpose and maintaining an optimistic and positive attitude."

    Books

    Insanity: The Idea and Its Consequences
        by Thomas Szasz, 1987
    Partial contents: Part One: Illness: Defining Illness - Being a Patient - Part Two: Insanity: Defining Mental Illness - Being a Mental Patient - Part Three: The Conceptual Dimensions of Mental Illness
    The Manufacture of Madness: A Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health Movement
        by Thomas Szasz, 1970
    Partial contents: The Inquisition and Institutional Psychiatry: Society's Internal Enemies and Protectors - The Witch as Mental Patient - The Manufacture of Madness: The New Manufacturer-Benjamin Rush, Father of American Psychiatry
    The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of Personal Conduct
        by Thomas Szasz, 1960
    Partial contents: Growth and Structure of the Myth - Hysteria: An Example of the Myth - Semiotical Analysis of Behavior - Rule-Following Analysis of Behavior - Game Model Analysis of Behavior

    Videos


    7. Health | Libertarian Public Policy with Jeffrey Miron, by Jeffrey Miron, 1 Jul 2016
    Discusses government interventions in health-related areas, such as Medicare, Medicaid and ACA, the FDA regulation of medicines and medical devices, licensing of healthcare professionals and immigration restrictions on foreign-born U.S. trained doctors
    An Unhealthy Alliance: Tobacco Companies and Anti-smoking, by Aeon J. Skoble, 14 May 2015
    Discusses the different groups lobbying city and other governments to enact laws banning e-cigarettes and vaping
    "Why are cities across America considering bans on e-cigarettes and vaping? Is it to protect public health? While that's what you typically hear, I think there's another important explanation. ... Many anti-tobacco activists have become anti-vaping activists. Saying that just like regular cigarettes, e-cigarettes could be dangerous for people's health or that they could send the wrong message to kids. ... Doesn't it seem wrong that these big businesses get to decide what you do with your body and your property? Isn't that for you to decide?"
    Related Topic: Prohibition

    The introductory paragraph uses material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.