Powers retained by the States and the people
Enumerated Powers


Amendment X to the U.S. Constitution
"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people."


Do Our Rights Come from the Constitution?, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Jun 1999
"The Constitution made it clear that this government, unlike others in history, would not be one of unlimited powers. Instead, ... the federal government would be one of limited, enumerated powers. For example, the powers of Congress are limited to those enumerated in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution."
Penumbras, Emanations, and Stuff, by Joseph Sobran, The Reactionary Utopian, 6 Feb 2006
"The Tenth is often referred to as 'the states' rights amendment,' but that's not quite accurate. It speaks of powers, not rights. ... The Federal Government could exercise only those powers listed ... in Article I, Section 8. It was pretty specific: coining (not printing) money, punishing counterfeiters, declaring war, and so forth. "
The Bill of Rights: Reserved Powers, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, May 2005
"This system of federal and state powers is known as 'federalism.' By dividing power in that way, the idea was to keep the central government weak and keep political power closer to the people. Compare that to a country that has one central, national government, which is responsible for governing the entire nation."
Related Topic: Enumerated Powers
The Constitution or Liberty, by Sheldon Richman, 7 Dec 2007
Contrasts Article II of the Articles of Confederation with the Tenth Amendment and Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, and discusses the implied powers of the latter document
"The most significant difference is that Article II qualifies the word delegated with expressly. The Tenth Amendment does not. This suggests that while the Articles of Confederation was explicitly a document of express, enumerated congressional powers, the Constitution apparently was not. The difference was no oversight ..."
Tired of Two Parties?: Blame the centralization of the federal government, not the Constitution, by Pradeep Chhibber, Ken Kollman, The Washington Post, 17 Aug 2004
"... the truth is that the United States has not always been so dominated by two parties. ... Starting in the 1930s, however, minor parties stopped winning significant shares of votes for elections to Congress ... The decline in voting for minor parties has corresponded to the increasing power of the national government relative to the states."
Related Topic: Political Parties
What Is the Constitution?, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Jun 2002
Discusses constitutional interpretation, in particular the ninth and tenth amendments, in light of comments from Antonin Scalia about a national ID card
"James Madison, the acknowledged father of the Constitution, said that the central government was delegated powers that are few and defined. This is backed up by the Constitution itself. Article I, Sec. 8 contains a short list of powers given to the Congress. To reinforce this point, the Tenth Amendment (in the Bill of Rights), ... was adopted at the urging of those who thought the Constitution would allow the government to grow too powerful ..."