Author of the Declaration of Independence, third President of the United States
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  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson (13 April [2 April] 1743 O.S. – 4 July 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second vice president of the United States, serving under John Adams from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

    United States Declaration of Independence, Author, signer and representative from Virginia

    Reference

    Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826), by Daniel J. Mahoney, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Thomas Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence and other key documents of early American constitutionalism. He was almost certainly the founder most instrumental in developing the philosophy of limited government that dominated American political thought until the 20th century. Jefferson was a quintessential Renaissance man, with law and politics as perhaps the least favorite of his many interests, yet he was drawn into the political conflicts of his time because of his devotion to what he called 'the holy cause of freedom.'"

    Born

    13 Apr 1743, in Shadwell, Virginia

    Died

    4 Jul 1826, in Monticello, Virginia

    Biography

    Avalon Project - Jefferson's Autobiography, 29 Jul 1821
    Covering the period from 1743 (his childhood, with background on his parents) to 1790 (shortly after his return from Paris and before assuming his office as U.S. Secretary of State); written during 6 Jan-29 July 1821
    "At the age of 77, I begin to make some memoranda and state some recollections of dates & facts concerning myself, for my own more ready reference & for the information of my family. ... Mr. [George] Wythe continued to be my faithful and beloved Mentor in youth, and my most affectionate friend through life. In 1767, he led me into the practice of the law at the bar of the General court, at which I continued until the revolution ... When the famous Resolutions of 1765, against the Stamp-act, were proposed ... I attended the debate ... & heard the splendid display of Mr. Henry's talents as a popular orator."
    Life of Thomas Jefferson, by B. L. Rayner, 1834
    Revised and edited (circa 1997) by Eyler Robert Coates, Sr.; presents the original text but with "a large number of corrections and additions", "a complete modernization of the punctuation" and "replacement of obsolete terms"
    "Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743 (April 2, old style), on the farm called Shadwell, adjoining what is now Monticello, in the county of Albermarle, Virginia. The date of his birth was unknown to the public until after his decease. Repeated attempts had been made to ascertain it ... but ... he always declined revealing it and enjoined the same privacy upon his family. The principles which determined him on this subject were the great indelicacy and impropriety of permitting himself to be made the recipient of a homage, so incompatible with the true dignity and independence of the republican character ..."
    Thomas Jefferson, a Brief Biography | Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
    "Other men would serve as U.S. president and hold the public offices he had filled, but only he was the primary draftsman of the Declaration of Independence and of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, nor could others claim the position as the Father of the University of Virginia. More importantly, through these three accomplishments he had made an enormous contribution to the aspirations of a new America and to the dawning hopes of repressed people around the world. He had dedicated his life to meeting the challenges of his age: political freedom, religious freedom, and educational opportunity."

    Web Sites

    Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606 to 1827
    Digital collection at the Library of Congress; includes related essays as well as teaching and research resources
    "The papers of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), diplomat, architect, scientist, and third president of the United States ... consist of approximately 27,000 items ... The Thomas Jefferson Papers are divided into ten series as follows: ... General Correspondence, 1651-1827 ... Horatio Gates Letterbook, 1780-1781 ... District of Columbia Miscellany, 1790-1808 ... Account Books, 1767-1782 ... Commonplace Books, 1758-1772 ... Randolph Family Manuscripts, 1790-1889 ... Miscellaneous Bound Volumes, 1768-1829 ... Virginia Records, 1606-1737 ... Collected Manuscripts, 1783-1822 ... Addenda, 1781-1829"
    Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
    Owned and maintained by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc. (a non-profit corporation) since 1923 and opened to the public a year later
    "Monticello, Thomas Jefferson's plantation near Charlottesville, Va., was the center of his world. To understand Jefferson, one must understand Monticello; it can be seen as his autobiographical statement. ... The Foundation seeks to facilitate conversations and to use its extensive research and knowledge to stimulate interactions on a variety of topics that were of keen interest to Jefferson, the most powerful of which are liberty and self government. Through virtual, off-site and on-site engagement, the Foundation seeks to excite the world about Jefferson's relevance today and ignite a passion for history."

    Web Pages

    Thomas Jefferson - Libertarianism.org
    Short profile and links to essays, videos and other resources about Jefferson
    "One of the most well-known founding fathers, Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. The ideas of liberty he promoted continue to form the basis of the American cultural heritage today."
    Thomas Jefferson - Online Library of Liberty
    Includes portrait, short biography, links to timeline of his life and work, to various versions of Jefferson's works and to selected quotations
    "Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), a Virginian, was the author of the American Declaration of Independence (1776), an active participant in the Revolution, Governor of Virginia (1779), member of Congress, Minister to France, Secretary of State under President Washington, and president of the United States (1800). He was a polymath who wrote on and was knowledgeable about science, architecture, music, agriculture, law, education, geography, and music."

    Articles

    273 Years Later, Here's How Thomas Jefferson Is Still Shaping Our Society, 13 Apr 2016
    Brief discussion of the anniversary of Jefferson's birth date, together with a video where professor Aeon Skoble discusses what are rights
    "He was the author of the Declaration of Independence. He served as the third president of our country. He was an undisputedly important American intellectual and innovator. As we commemorate Thomas Jefferson's 273rd birthday (he was born on April 13th, 1743), we could certainly remember him for more than one accomplishment. ... This concept that rights are not granted by a king, a church, or a government was revolutionary ... It's also perhaps one of the main reasons that Thomas Jefferson's birthday will continue to be celebrated by those who care about liberty and individual rights for many years to come."
    Related Topic: Inalienable Rights
    Agenda for Liberty: A Biography of John Lilburne, by Jim Powell, The Triumph of Liberty, 4 Jul 2000
    Lengthy biographical essay
    "In his scaffold speech, Rumbold ... affirmed Leveller principles. 'I am sure there was no man born marked of God above another,' he declared, 'for none comes into the world with a saddle upon his back, neither any booted and spurred to ride him.' Thomas Jefferson adapted Rumbold's phrasing in one of his last letters, June 24, 1826: 'All eyes are opened, or opening, to the rights of man. The general spread of the light of science has already laid open to every view the palpable truth, that the mass of mankind has not been born with saddles on their backs, nor a favored few booted and spurred ready to ride them legitimately, by the grace of God.'"
    Albert Jay Nock: A Gifted Pen for Radical Individualism, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Mar 1997
    Biographical essay, including his early life, editorship of The Freeman, and notable books and essays
    "Then Nock focused on book-length biographical essays. The first was Mr. Jefferson (1926), which skipped the most famous events of the Founder's life to focus on the development of his mind. Nock drew extensively on Charles Beard's The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy. Claude Bowers's Jefferson and Hamilton, published the same year, sold more copies at the time and did more to revive the reputation of Jefferson, who had been a forgotten man since the Civil War. But it is Nock's book that remains in print."
    Bureaucracy and the Civil Service in the United States, by Murray Rothbard, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1995
    Historical account of the evolution of the United States Civil Service and attempts to reform it, from its beginnings through the early 20th century
    "... Jefferson is a classic case of corruption of principle from being in power. The first Jefferson Administration ... was certainly one of the finest libertarian moments ... Expenses were lowered, the army and navy were sharply reduced, the bureaucracy was cut, the public debt retired, and the federal excise tax, and the Alien and Sedition Acts, were repealed."
    Editorial: Turgot and the Battle Against Physiocracy, by Leonard Liggio, Literature of Liberty, 1979
    Editorial essay for volume II, number 1; discusses those who influenced Turgot and those influenced by him
    "So highly did Thomas Jefferson esteem the liberalism of Turgot that in the honored place of the entrance hall to Monticello he placed a Houdon portrait bust to this Enlightenment hero. Jefferson revered Turgot’s strong support of the American Revolution and his contributions to a major debate on constitutional principles. ... [John] Adams's friend, the Abbé Mably, a founder of modern socialism's denial of private property, published a work on the American constitutions which disturbed such republicans as Jefferson."
    First Principles, by Charley Reese, 24 Mar 2007
    Enumerates and discusses briefly some of the "essential principles" presented by Jefferson in his first inaugural speech
    "Thomas Jefferson, in his first inaugural speech, listed what he called 'the essential principles of our government and consequently those which ought to shape its administration.' ... peace, commerce and honest friendship with all nations — entangling alliances with none. Misname it 'isolationism' all you want, but it is the wisest policy advocated by the wisest of our Founding Fathers. ... Jefferson said that should we wander from these principles in error or alarm, we should retrace our steps to regain the road that leads to peace, liberty and safety. He was a hell of a lot smarter than today's politicians."
    Related Topic: Government
    Give Me Liberty, by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
    Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
    "Jefferson saw that the whole West—that is to say, the eastern half of the Mississippi valley—would be lost unless the United States could get a port on the Gulf. All that he wanted was a port, just one little bay. Two American commissioners in Paris, with no authority whatever to do so, bought the whole of Louisiana from Napoleon. It belonged to Spain, but Napoleon sold it, his armies could settle the matter with Spain. And two Americans bought it, paid fifteen million dollars for it. Jefferson was aghast when he heard the news. He came within an inch of repudiating the purchase."
    Honoring Jefferson, by Joseph Sobran, 1 Jul 2004
    Argues the 2004 cover of Time magazine, featuring Jefferson, as well as numerous articles in it, merely pay "lip service (to his genius) while missing the essence of it"
    "Today it's fashionable to condescend to Jefferson by saying his philosophy is a bit old-fashioned ... Jefferson would reply that self-evident truths are never 'old': A proposition is either true or false. If his truths were true in 1776, they were always true, and will always remain true. ... Jefferson saw that those truths were fatal to slavery. And his personal conduct on slavery has been rightly criticized on his own principles. But that is all the more reason to take his principles seriously. A man of Jefferson’s intellect, merely creating a philosophy to justify himself, would have come up with a very different set of principles."
    Related Topics: Abraham Lincoln, John Locke
    Independence Day Propaganda, by Anthony Gregory, 4 Jul 2011
    Argues that the American Revolution, albeit of a libertarian flavor, had several unsavory shortcomings
    "Thomas Jefferson deployed the Marines on an ultimately failed mission in the Barbary war, attempted to suspend habeas corpus and create a department of education, imposed a brutal embargo on English goods that decimated the economy and destroyed privacy rights, and conducted the Louisiana Purchase in bold defiance of the Constitution."
    James Madison - Hero of the Day, by Timothy Sandefur, The Daily Objectivist, 2000
    "When Thomas Jefferson returned ... to become governor of Virginia, he and Madison began a lifelong friendship. Madison admired Jefferson's flashing brilliance, and Jefferson respected Madison's more realistic and disciplined thought. ... Elected to the new House of Representatives, Madison ... worked with Jefferson to oppose the Federalists' big-government programs. During the Adams administration, he helped Jefferson oppose the Sedition Act by writing the Virginia Resolutions. When Jefferson was elected, he became Secretary of State. ... He was glad to retire ... and to work on Jefferson's new University of Virginia."
    Related Topic: James Madison
    Jefferson on American Liberty, by Gary M. Galles, Mises Daily, 4 Jul 2002
    List of Jefferson quotations on the subjects of liberty, rights and government
    "Because Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence ... and because he died on this day in 1826 ... it is worth taking a moment to remember some of the central ideas of Jefferson, the most prolific of our Founding Fathers on the topics of our rights and the liberty which America was to preserve and protect. ... Jefferson once asked a seminal question: 'Sometimes it is said that man cannot be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others?' Our founding documents were designed, in part by Jefferson's hand, to answer that question for America. ..."
    Related Topics: Government, Liberty, Rights, Taxation
    Jefferson's Philosophy, by Murray Rothbard, Faith and Freedom, Mar 1951
    Contrasts the philosophy of Jefferson with the "practical man" approach of Alexander Hamilton
    "Jefferson's position on foreign policy stemmed from the same source. He did not believe that our government, or any government, is equipped to remake the world by force to our own liking. He was frankly a whole-hearted patriot, whose natural love of the soil and his country was reinforced by the fact that America constituted the Great Experiment in Liberty. His foreign policy was expressed in this classic phrase: 'Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations—entangling alliances with none.' Particularly marked was his perceptive distrust of the wily imperialism of Great Britain."
    Life and Works of Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, by David M. Hart, 1 Jan 2002
    Biographical essay on French philosopher Destutt de Tracy
    "The impact of Tracy's political and economic ideas was considerable. His Commentary and Review of Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws (1811) was much admired by Thomas Jefferson, who translated it and had it published in America at a time when a French edition was impossible due to Napoleon's censorship. ... Tracy's multi-volume work Elements of Ideology (1801-1815) is his magnum opus. Volume 4, which appeared in 1815 and which dealt with political economy, was also translated and published by Jefferson in 1817."
    Module 3: Thomas Paine's Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence
    Third module of the Cato Home Study Course, includes link to listen or download audio program (two parts, 1:18:20 and 1:13:52), questions and suggested readings
    "Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), in drafting the Declaration of Independence, had, as he later said, 'turned to neither book nor pamphlet in writing it'; he attempted simply 'to place before mankind the common sense of the subject.' This is strong evidence of the degree to which libertarian ideas, such as those articulated by John Locke in the previous century, had come to permeate popular American thinking on morality and politics. It is notable how many of phrases from Locke's Second Treatise of Government are echoed in the Declaration of Independence."
    No More Great Presidents, by Robert Higgs, The Free Market, Mar 1997
    Discusses the results of a 1996 poll of historians asking them to rank U.S. presidents, focusing on those ranked Great, Near Great and Failure, and offers his own ranking
    "The one exception, Jefferson, confined his presidential bellicosity to authorizing, with Congressional consent, the naval engagements against the Barbary pirates. (Of course, he had been a revolutionary official during the War of Independence.) ... Other early presidents who were not entirely reprehensible in office include Jefferson and Jackson, though each committed grave derelictions."
    The American Heritage of "Isolationism", by Gregory Bresiger, Future of Freedom, May 2006
    Criticizes the use of the word "isolationist" by the media, "internationalists" and other foreign intervention promoters, looking at the heritage of noninterventionism as exemplified by Washington's Farewell Address
    "And when Adams's great political opponent, Thomas Jefferson, took office in 1801, he, too, paid homage to Washington's foreign-policy advice. Jefferson, despite his differences with the Federalists, promised no 'entangling alliances.' Isolationism, or non-interventionism, was, for a short time, the established policy of the United States."
    The Challenge to the U.S. Postal Monopoly, 1839-1851 [PDF], by Kelly B. Olds, Cato Journal, 1995
    Analysis of the operation of the U.S. Post Office in the 1840s, including estimates of subsidies to various groups, and discussion of the private competitors and the effects they had on the postal service
    "Giving out the postage revenues to groups with political power became the Post Office's second function. Measured monetarily, it was the Post Office's primary function. Thomas Jefferson, suspicious of the Post Office, had written: 'I view [the Post Office] as a source of boundless patronage to the executive, jobbing to members of Congress and their friends and a bottomless abyss of public money ...' The government resisted subsidizing the Post Office until the 1850s, partly out of fear of that which Jefferson prophesied."
    The Constitution or Liberty, by Sheldon Richman, 21 Sep 2012
    Contrasts Article II of the Articles of Confederation with the Tenth Amendment and Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, and discusses the implied powers of the latter document (revised version of article published 7 Dec 2007)
    "When advocates of the proposed Constitution advertised the document as containing express, enumerated powers, the Anti-federalists and fellow travelers such as Thomas Jefferson scoffed. ... To which Jefferson replied: 'To say, as Mr. Wilson does that ... all is reserved in the case of the general government which is not given ... might do for the Audience to whom it was addressed, but is surely gratis dictim, opposed by strong inferences from the body of the instrument, as well as from the omission of the clause of our present confederation [Article II], which declared that in express terms.'"
    The Latest Defamation of Jefferson, by Thomas DiLorenzo, 31 Mar 2006
    Criticizes a conference titled "Mr. Jefferson Goes to the Middle East" and implying that George W. Bush is somehow Jeffersonian, by contrasting Jefferson and Lincoln's (and by extension Bush's) policies and actions
    "Jefferson was the apostle of states' rights, enunciated in his famous Kentucky Resolve of 1798 ... Jefferson authored America's Declaration of Secession from the British empire, known as the Declaration of Independence. ... [He] was against protectionism, central banking, and internal improvement' subsidies ... [He] was a strict constructionist ... [He] was a southern agrarian ... Jefferson was opposed to a standing army, let alone one that would wage imperialistic wars of conquest, even under such 'benevolent' sounding guises as spreading democracy."
    The Physiocrats, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, Dec 2010
    Discusses the 18th century French economists and their influences on Adam Smith, on American agriarianism and on Henry George
    "In a letter (1785) to John Jay, Jefferson wrote, 'Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens. They are the most vigorous, the most independent, the most virtuous, & they are tied to their country & wedded to its liberty & interests by the most lasting bonds.' ... Other agrarians, such as Jefferson, seemed to incorporate whatever Physiocratic ideas they found valuable. The Physiocratic influence upon Jefferson may have deepened when Du Pont emigrated to America (1799) and the two men become personal friends. Arguably, Jefferson's land policies that were key to 19th-century Western settlement derived their tone from the Physiocrats."
    The Revolution's Forgotten Hero, by David A. Merrick, Future of Freedom, Dec 2003
    Highlights the work of George Mason as the person "most responsible for penning freedoms into written law" for his contributions to or influence on the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Bill of Rights
    "'That all men are by nature equally free and independent and have certain inherent rights of which when they enter into a state of society they cannot by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty with the means of acquiring and possessing property and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.' ... One might guess [these words] were written by Thomas Jefferson, while he was drafting the Declaration ... But [he] was anticipated and undoubtedly influenced by a man whom he described as a statesman 'of the first order of wisdom among those who acted on the theater of revolution.'"
    The Rocky Road of American Taxation, by Charles Adams, Mises Daily, 15 Apr 2006
    Adapted from the author's For Good and Evil: The Impact of Taxes on the Course of Civilization
    "When Jefferson ran for president in 1800, his anti-federalist tax platform endeared him to the hearts of the people and assured his victory. ... when Jefferson tells us rebellions are good tonic for government, in his frame of reference he was talking about tax rebellions."
    The Trouble With Thomas Jefferson: The eloquent Founder's original sin, by Damon Root, Reason, Jan 2009
    Review of the book The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family, by Annette Gordon-Reed
    "Think about what Calhoun is saying here. The idea that 'all men are created equal' has slowly developed in the American consciousness, producing the 'poisonous fruits' of the anti-slavery movement. Jefferson may or may not have intended such an outcome; he certainly did little actively to bring it about, though he did denounce slavery and its brutalizing impact on white society. But the libertarian ideas that inspired Jefferson, the ones coursing through the Declaration of Independence and later through the Constitution, nonetheless did bring it about. Douglass welcomed that result; Calhoun despised it."
    Related Topic: Frederick Douglass
    The War of 1812 Was the Health of the State, Part 1, by Sheldon Richman, 27 Feb 2015
    Examines the sentiments of the founding fathers and other leading figures and some of the events that led to the War of 1812, and argues that "dangerous precedents were set" that led to imperialism and further wars
    "As president (1801-1809), Thomas Jefferson had pushed Congress to impose a general trade embargo — a ban on all American exports — during the Napoleonic wars, when American merchant ships (and a warship) were interfered with, American neutrality violated, and merchant seamen impressed into the Royal Navy. Jefferson called this response, which was highly divisive because it disrupted so many Americans' means of earning a living, 'peaceful coercion' and an alternative to war. Wood adds, 'The actual fighting of 1812 was only the inevitable consequence of the failure of "peaceful coercion."'"
    Related Topics: Founding Fathers, War
    Thomas Jefferson - Hero of the Day, The Daily Objectivist, 1 Jan 2000
    "In the 1760s and early 1770s, ... most colonials continued to hope for a peaceful resolution ... Thomas Jefferson, too, hoped for reconciliation ... Within a few months he was leaning much more in favor of independence. '... by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose ...' Jefferson soon would be 'speaking the sentiments of America' very openly indeed: as the author of the founding document of the united (small 'u' in those days) States ... Jefferson almost missed getting the job: he was out of the loop on much of the discussion about independence."
    Thomas Jefferson's Sophisticated, Radical Vision of Liberty, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jul 1995
    Biographical essay, highlighting Jefferson's "felicity of expression" that led him to write the famous words in the Declaration of Independence
    "Jefferson expressed a sophisticated, radical vision of liberty with awesome grace and eloquence. He affirmed that all people are entitled to liberty, regardless what laws might say. If laws don’t protect liberty, he declared, then the laws are illegitimate, and people may rebel. While Jefferson didn’t originate this idea, he put it in a way that set afire the imagination of people around the world. Moreover, he developed a doctrine for strictly limiting the power of government, the most dangerous threat to liberty everywhere."
    Thomas Paine-Passionate Pamphleteer for Liberty: A Singleminded Private Individual Aroused Millions to Throw Off Their Oppressors, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jan 1996
    Biographical essay, highlighting Paine's writings in Common Sense, American Crisis, Rights of Man and Age of Reason
    "Although Federalist critics savaged President Thomas Jefferson for defending Paine, he courageously invited his friend to the White House. When Jefferson's daughters Mary and Martha made clear they would rather not associate with Paine, Jefferson replied that Paine 'is too well entitled to the hospitality of every American, not to cheerfully receive mine.'"
    Would-Be Rulers without Clothes, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, May 2008
    Examines Hillary Clinton's assertion about "wanting" a universal health care plan
    "It's what Thomas Jefferson meant when he wrote, 'All men are created equal' in the Declaration of Independence. He certainly did not mean that people are equal in intelligence, talent, energy, ambition, physical strength, and so on. And he couldn't have meant that they should merely be equal before the law, because that would be a low bar indeed; we can imagine a society in which the law treats everyone rather poorly but nonetheless equally. ..."

    Writings

    A Summary View of the Rights of British America, 1774
    Details, as a resolution to be adopted by a congress of deputies of the various states, complaints against the current and previous British kings and parliament, including laws or decrees limiting commerce, suspending state legislatures and many more
    "... presented to his majesty ... as chief magistrate of the British empire, the united complaints of his majesty's subjects in America; complaints which are excited by many unwarrantable encroachments and usurpations ... these his states have often individually made humble application to his imperial throne to obtain, through its intervention, some redress of their injured rights ...; humbly to hope that this their joint address, penned in the language of truth, and divested of those expressions of servility which would persuade his majesty that we are asking favours, and not rights, shall obtain from his majesty a more respectful acceptance."
    Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782
    Written in 1781, corrected and enlarged in 1782 and published 27 Feb 1787; presented as a series of 23 questions and answers covering geographic, demographic, economic, legal, historic and other details of the state
    "Virginia is bounded on the East by the Atlantic ... An inspection of a map of Virginia, will give a better idea of the geography of its rivers ... The following table shews the number of persons imported for the establishment of our colony in its infant state, and the census of inhabitants at different periods ... Queen Elizabeth by her letters-patent, bearing date March 25, 1584, licensed Sir Walter Raleigh to search for remote heathen lands, not inhabited by Christian people, and granted to him, in fee simple, all the soil within 200 leagues of the places where his people should, within 6 years, make their dwellings or abidings ..."
    Related Topic: Virginia

    Books

    Mr. Jefferson, by Albert Jay Nock, 1926
    Table of contents: Youth - Beginnings - 1784-1789 - 1784-1789 (continued) - Washington, Hamilton, Adams - Eight Years of "Splendid Misery" - Recommencements - Advesperascit

    Videos


    Thomas Jefferson, by Ken Burns, 1997
    Documentary on the life of Thomas Jefferson, broadcast over PBS stations, directed and produced by Ken Burns, narrated by Ossie Davis and with Sam Waterston as the voice of Jefferson

    The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Thomas Jefferson" as of 28 Jul 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.