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Annual international awards in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace and economics

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not being a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics". The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the respective fields.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Award given annually since 1969 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to persons in the field of economic sciences "who have produced work of outstanding importance"
Nobel Peace Prize, by The Norwegian Nobel Committee
Annual award given since 1901 by the Norwegian Nobel Committee to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses"
Nobel Prize in Chemistry, by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Annual award given since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in various fields of chemistry


The life and times of F.A. Hayek, who explained why political liberty is impossible without economic liberty, by Jim Powell, 2000
Lengthy biographical essay, with extensive quotes; alternate version of "The Worst on Top" chapter of The Triumph of Liberty (2000)
"In retrospect," wrote Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw ... "it was the awarding of the 1974 Nobel Prize in economics that first captured ... the great intellectual change. The Swedish academy wanted to honor Gunnar Myrdal, ... a great figure of Swedish socialism. But the grantors, worried about the appearance of choosing so local a favorite, decided that they ought to balance the ticket with a more conservative figure, and they awarded the prize to Myrdal jointly with Friedrich von Hayek ... Yet the award documented the beginning of a great shift in the intellectual center of gravity ..."


Hayek: A Commemorative Album, by Richard M. Ebeling, Freedom Daily, Jul 1999
Review of Hayek: A Commemorative Album (1999) compiled by John Raybould
I last saw [Hayek] in September 1981 ... He greeted me as an old friend ... I shall always recall with deep affection and appreciation his kindness and patience. He epitomized what I like to idealize a Nobel Laureate should be ... In 1950, Hayek moved to the University of Chicago ... As Raybould points out, this was a time during which Hayek was almost forgotten or treated with derision ... But in 1974, after winning the Nobel Prize, Hayek once again became a central figure in political and economic debates, ending up influencing Margaret Thatcher and her "conservative revolution" ...


Free markets king in Sweden, at least for a day: Ten minutes with ... Donald Boudreaux, by Donald J. Boudreaux, Bill Steigerwald, 18 Dec 2002
Comments on Vernon Smith's Nobel Prize and about the firing of Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill
A: I have to begin my answer by pointing out that Vernon is our second Nobel Prize winner at George Mason. Jim Buchanan, who won in 1986, was our first ... The Nobel committee has been pretty good over the years in recognizing the work of the top free-market economists. F.A. Hayek got it in 1974. Milton Friedman of course got it in 1976. Buchanan got it in '86. Ronald Coase in '91. Gary Becker in '92. Doug North in '93 ... The encouraging thing is that the Nobel committee is not, and really has never been, averse to recognizing the work of the top market economists.

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Nobel Prize" as of 28 Nov 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.