20th century Austrian-born British philosopher
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  • Karl Popper

    Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor. He is generally regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science.

    Reference

    Popper, Karl (1902-1994), by Jeremy Shearmur, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Karl Popper, an eminent philosopher and social theorist, was born in Vienna, but subsequently became a British subject. When young, Popper was intellectually precocious and had a keen interest in science, psychology, and, subsequently, philosophy. ... Popper also is well known for his writings on social philosophy. His books Open Society and Its Enemies and The Poverty of Historicism, both written during the Second World War, were powerful attacks on Plato, Marx, and their arguments in favor of historical inevitability as enemies of an open society."

    Born

    28 Jul 1902, in Vienna

    Died

    17 Sep 1994, in London

    Articles

    Interview with Robert Nozick, by Robert Nozick, Julian Sanchez, 26 Jul 2001
    Topics discussed include: ethics, science and philosophy, Karl Popper and the scientific method, Ayn Rand and epistemology, consciousness, relativism and the academic left and Nozick himself
    "Popper is famous for saying that induction can't be justified, that the only inferences that data support are to deductive consequences of the data .... Popper’s anti-inductive conclusions were always held to be counterintuitive, even ridiculous, but he swallowed them, and so did his followers. Now I'm saying something stronger than has been said thus far, namely, that their view is incoherent."
    The life and times of F.A. Hayek, who explained why political liberty is impossible without economic liberty, by Jim Powell
    Lengthy biographical essay, with extensive quotes both from Hayek and others (including Keynes)
    "Hayek had Austrian-born philosopher Karl R. Popper speak at a seminar, and Popper expanded it into his most controversial book, The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945), a passionate attack on Plato and Karl Marx; Hayek helped find a publisher and persuaded colleagues at the London School of Economics to give Popper a teaching position -- rescuing him from a hostile academic environment in New Zealand. Through the ups and downs of Hayek's life, Popper remained his closest friend."
    The Spirit of Humility [PDF], by Stanley Kober, Cato Journal, 1997
    Discusses the recognition of the limits on human knowledge, which the author claims leads to the title spirit as evidenced in "the American experiment" and its possible lessons for European unification
    "That spirit [of humility] is also the spirit of modern science, but it was not always this way. In the Novum Organum, written in 1620, Francis Bacon defined empirical inquiry as an effort 'to seek, not pretty and probable conjectures, but certain and demonstrable knowledge.' ... Modern science takes a different view. In the words of Karl Popper (1969: 115), 'Scientific theories ... are genuine conjectures—highly informative guesses about the world which although not verifiable (i.e., capable of being shown to be true) can be submitted to severe critical tests.'"

    The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Karl Popper" as of 05 Aug 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.