Measures of Freedom
Human Freedom Index
[PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 6.48, Rank: 108, Personal Freedom: 5.90, Economic Freedom: 7.06, Democracy Index: 5.01
Lebanon | Freedom House
, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Partly Free, Aggregate Score: 43, Political Rights: 5, Civil Liberties: 4
"The Lebanese political system remained paralyzed in 2015, with the presidency vacant since the last incumbent's term expired in May 2014 and the National Assembly's term extended twice since 2013. The two main political coalitions were unable to agree on a new president during the year, and under the legislature's 2014 term extension, National Assembly elections were not expected until 2017. A unity cabinet headed by Prime Minister Tammam Salam managed the country's affairs."
Level of Economic Freedom
, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.06, Rank: 76
A Legacy of Anti-Terrorist Failure in Lebanon
, by James Bovard
, Future of Freedom
, Oct 2006
Details the U.S. and Israeli involvement in Lebanon, starting with the 1982 Operation Peace for Galilee, the Sabra and Shatila massacre, and the attacks on the U.S. embassy and Marine HQ
"With the Bush team cheer-leading all the way, Israel reinvaded Lebanon in July in response to Hezbollah's seizure of two Israeli soldiers. ... Americans need to pay attention to what is happening in Lebanon because there are many politicians and political appointees in Washington who want to see U.S. troops join the fray. This would be as foolish now as it was in 1982."
Flashback: Beirut, June 1982: The Reagan Roadmap for Antiterrorism Disaster
, by James Bovard
, 8 Oct 2003
Details events before and after the 1983 bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut
"On September 13, Reagan authorized Marine commanders in Lebanon to call in air strikes and other attacks against the Muslims to help the Christian Lebanese army. ... Navy ships repeatedly bombarded the Muslims over the next few weeks. ... October 23, 1983 ... The explosion left a 30-foot-deep crater and killed 243 marines. ... Reagan quietly withdrew U.S. combat troops from Beirut in early 1984. ... Muslims also responded to U.S. troops by seizing American hostages. Reagan sent military equipment to Iran ..."
, by Sheldon Richman
, 1 Sep 2006
Discusses the July 2006 Israeli attack on Lebanon, which resulted in 800 dead and was carried out with assistance from the Bush administration
"... the attack killed about 800 people, mostly civilians, and left much of Lebanon in rubble. ... Lebanon’s effort to rebuild itself was set back many years, as Israel intended. Hezbollah was always more than a guerilla organization aimed at [the] Israeli occupation. It has provided social services to the poor southern Lebanese and is a political party that elected members of Parliament in last year's elections. Hezbollah members hold two cabinet posts."
Lebanon, Again: The Israelis want another go
, by Justin Raimondo
, 9 Feb 2007
"The appearance of Michel Aoun and Hassan Nasrallah on the same stage, rallying the people against the U.S.-backed government of Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora is a veritable replay of the famous Cedar Revolution, when a mass movement from below ousted the pro-Syrian government."
The Spirit of Humility
[PDF], by Stanley Kober, Cato Journal
Discusses the recognition of the limits on human knowledge, which the author claims leads to the title spirit as evidenced in "the American experiment" and its possible lessons for European unification
"The danger ... is that if a state is based on any other principle, its majority will be determined not by the freely changing flow of public opinion, but by a permanent characteristic, such as nationality or religion. This relationship of permanent majority and permanent minority is an unstable foundation for a democracy. ... as the history of Lebanon has demonstrated, these relationships may not be as permanent as people believe. Lebanon suffered through a bloody civil war because a framework of government that assumed a permanent Christian majority could not peacefully adjust to the shift in the population."