Second President of the United States
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  • John Adams

    John Adams (30 October [O.S. 19 October] 1735 - 4 July 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–97) and second President of the United States (1797–1801). He was a lawyer, diplomat, political theorist and a leader of the movement for American independence from Great Britain. He was also a dedicated diarist and correspondent, particularly with his wife and closest advisor Abigail.


    Adams, John (1735-1826), by Michiel Visser, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "John Adams, American statesman and political philosopher, played a leading role in the American Revolution and served as the nation's first vice president and second president. He wrote a number of important works in constitutional and political philosophy, in which he argued for a balanced, moderate form of representative democracy to safeguard liberty. Adams, a Harvard-educated lawyer from a Puritan family, wrote the Constitution of Massachusetts, sat on the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and served for a decade as a diplomat in Europe, which resulted in his not being able to attend the Constitutional Convention."
    Related Topic: Government


    30 Oct 1735, in Braintree, Massachusetts


    4 Jul 1826, in Quincy, Massachusetts


    Bureaucracy and the Civil Service in the United States, by Murray Rothbard, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1995
    Historical account of the evolution of the United States Civil Service and attempts to reform it, from its beginnings through the early 20th century
    "On another occasion, bitter at criticisms by William Duane's radical Jeffersonian Philadelphia Aurora, Adams had his Secretary of State pass the word of his displeasure to the US Attorney for Pennsylvania William Rawle, for not cracking down on the Aurora for seditious libel."
    Independence Day Propaganda, by Anthony Gregory, 4 Jul 2011
    Argues that the American Revolution, albeit of a libertarian flavor, had several unsavory shortcomings
    "In the first five U.S. presidencies, we see the American empire, albeit in embryonic form, begin its centuries-long crusade of aggressive expansion and centralization of power in the capital. ... John Adams blatantly violated the First Amendment as much as any president since with his notorious Alien and Sedition Acts."
    The American Heritage of "Isolationism", by Gregory Bresiger, Future of Freedom, May 2006
    "That's even though a war declaration might have made him, for a time, a very popular leader who might not have lost the election of 1800. Adams hoped his epitaph would read, 'Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of peace with France in the year 1800.'"
    The Criminality of the State, by Albert Jay Nock, The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America, authored by Robert Muccigrosso">American Mercury, 1939
    Cautions Americans that rather than being worried or surprised by the doings of Nazi Germany, Soviet Russia, the Munich agreement and other foreign states, they should devote their energies to reining the growth of the United States government
    "After 1789, John Adams said that, so far from being a democracy of a democratic republic, the political organization of the country was that of 'a monarchical republic, or, if you will, a limited monarchy'; the powers of its President were far greater than those of 'an avoyer, a consul, a podesta, a doge, a stadtholder; nay, than a king of Poland; nay, than a king of Sparta.'"
    Thomas Jefferson's Sophisticated, Radical Vision of Liberty, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Jul 1995
    Biographical essay, highlighting Jefferson's "felicity of expression" that led him to write the famous words in the Declaration of Independence
    "Personally, the most heartening experience of Jefferson's last years was the reconciliation with John Adams. ... Jefferson, almost 69, told Dr. Rush that while he was wary of the suspicious and envious Adams, then 76, he recognized what Adams had done for American liberty. ... a couple of Jefferson's Virginia friends visited Adams and heard him declare: 'I always loved Jefferson and still love him.' ... Adams ended up writing the first letter on January 1, 1812, and Jefferson replied: 'I now salute you with unchanged affections and respect.' Soon correspondence was flowing between Quincy and Monticello."

    The introductory paragraph uses material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.