Constant, Benjamin (1767-1830)
, by David M. Hart, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
, 15 Aug 2008
"Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque was born in Lausanne, Switzerland, and died in Paris. He was a novelist, political theorist, journalist, and politician who, through his education and personal inclination, brought English and Scottish notions of liberal constitutional monarchy to France. It was unusual for members of his generation to study in Germany (Erlangen) and Scotland (Edinburgh), but his experience enriched classical liberalism by combining the theoretical French passion for liberty with an appreciation of English constitutional monarchism and the evolutionary and historical approach of the Scottish school of liberal thought."
Ancient Greece's Legacy for Liberty: Personal Freedom in Athens
, by Roderick T. Long
, 24 Sep 2015
Discusses the political system of ancient Athens and the personal liberties it afforded its citizens, resident aliens and slaves
"In his 1819 essay 'The Liberty of the Ancients Compared With That of the Moderns,' Benjamin Constant argued that the ancient Greco-Roman conception of liberty was primarily concerned with the freedom to participate in the collective decisions of the state, not the freedom to live one's own life free of state interference. But ... Constant made an exception for Athens: 'There was in antiquity a republic where the enslavement of individual existence to the collective body was not as complete as I have described it. This republic was the most famous of all: you will guess that I am speaking of Athens. ...'"
Benjamin Constant, Eloquent Defender of Freedom
, by David Boaz
, 25 Oct 2017
Tribute to Constant, written on the 250th anniversary of his birth, with quotes from his speech "The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with That of the Moderns"
"Today is the 250th anniversary of the birth of Benjamin Constant, a prominent French liberal in the postrevolutionary era, whom Isaiah Berlin called 'the most eloquent of all defenders of freedom and privacy.' He is perhaps best known in our time as the author of an essay – actually a speech in 1833 – called 'The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with That of the Moderns.' He argued that the ancient concept of liberty as political participation was not suited to modern society, in which people were busy with the production of wealth."
How Nationalism and Socialism Arose from the French Revolution
, by Dan Sanchez, 12 Apr 2017
Examines how three crucial ideas (liberalism, nationalism and socialism) emerged around the same time (18th and 19th century) and how they depended on the rise of the modern people's state
"After the fall of Napoleon and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, one of France's leading liberals addressed the question: what went so wrong? Benjamin Constant answered that many of the Revolution’s 'evils' stemmed from a confusion between two kinds of liberty. In an 1819 essay, he discussed, 'The Liberty of Ancients Compared with that of Moderns.' According to Constant, the liberty of the modern world was individual freedom. This was the idea of liberty that emerged from the European towns with the rise of private commerce and industry."
Individual Liberty and Civil Society
, by Richard Ebeling
, Feb 1993
Reflects on Benjamin Constant's lecture on what liberty meant to the ancient Greeks vs. the 19th century Europeans and Americans and the 20th century reversion to statism
"In 1819, the French classical liberal, Benjamin Constant, delivered a lecture in Paris entitled, 'The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Modems.' ... while a concern for the preservation of political liberty was essential to the preservation of individual liberty, Constant believed that politics was a distraction from the proper affairs of free men, and these proper affairs were the peaceful pursuit and cultivation of their personal, family, commercial and voluntary societal relationships."
Liberty in the Ancient World
, by Roderick T. Long
, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
, 15 Aug 2008
Surveys the ancient civilizations in Sumeria, Hebrew Palestine, China, Greece and the Roman Republic and Empire, and their thoughts and practices about liberty
"In his 1816 essay 'The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with That of the Moderns,' the French libertarian Benjamin Constant famously argued that the meaning of liberty in classical antiquity did not refer to a guaranteed private sphere of personal discretion, but rather to the freedom to participate in the direct and collective exercise of sovereignty—a form of liberty compatible with severe constraints on individual choice. For Constant, ancient liberty was suitable to warlike societies with small populations, but not to an advanced commercial civilization ..."