, in Stagira, Macedonia, on 384 BCE
Measures of Freedom
Greece | Freedom House
, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 83, Political Rights: 2, Civil Liberties: 2
"With Greek voters exhausted by austerity measures required by international in exchange for debt relief, the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) won snap elections held in January 2015, ousting the previous governing coalition of the center-right New Democracy (ND) and the center-left Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). With support from its smaller coalition partner, the right-wing populist Independent Greeks (ANEL), SYRIZA then sought to renegotiate the onerous terms of bailout loans the country had agreed to in 2010 and 2012, but faced resistance."
Human Freedom Index
[PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 7.47, Rank: 48, Personal Freedom: 8.02, Economic Freedom: 6.93, Democracy Index: 1.9
Level of Economic Freedom
, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 6.93, Rank: 86
Empire or Liberty: The Antifederalists and Foreign Policy, 1787-1788
[PDF], by Jonathan Marshall, The Journal of Libertarian Studies
Describes the arguments regarding foreign policy made during the period of ratification of the United States Constitution by the Federalists and the counterarguments, "largely ignored" by historians, from the Antifederalists
"And George Clinton, after paying homage to Montesquieu, dredged up the mandatory historical proofs: 'The duration of the republic of Sparta was owing to its having continued with the same extent of territory after all its wars; and that the ambition of Athens and Lacedemon to command and direct the union, lost them their liberties, and gave them a monarchy.' Americans ..., aware of their inexperience with republican government, searched ancient history for parallels to their own situation. Colonial era revolutionary propaganda had etched into their minds the distinction between affluent, corrupt Athens and virtuous Sparta."
Related Topics: American War Between the States
, Standing Armies
, Foreign Entanglements
, Benjamin Franklin
, Patrick Henry
, John Jay
, James Madison
, George Mason
, United States
Improve the CIA? Better to abolish it
, by Chalmers Johnson, San Francisco Chronicle
, 22 Feb 2004
Lists countries where the CIA conducted subversive operations and recommends abolishing the agency.
"Since the overthrow of the Iranian government in 1953, the CIA has engaged in similar disguised assaults on the governments of Guatemala (1954); the Congo (1960); Cuba (1961); Brazil (1964); Indonesia (1965); Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (1961-73); Greece (1967); Chile (1973); Afghanistan (1979 to the present); El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua (1980s); and Iraq (1991 to the present) -- to name only the most obvious cases."
Related Topics: Attacks of 11 September 2001
, El Salvador
, Foreign Entanglements
, United States
Liberty in the Ancient World
, by Roderick T. Long
, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism
, 15 Aug 2008
Surveys the ancient civilizations in Sumeria, Hebrew Palestine, China, Greece and the Roman Republic and Empire, and their thoughts and practices about liberty
"The Greek world, including the Greek colonies in Italy and Asia Minor, benefited from political decentralization and a geographical situation favorable to trade. During the 10th through 6th centuries B.C., trade brought new wealth and new ideas—both destabilizing forces—into the Greek city-states, undermining the traditional warrior nobility and bolstering the power of an artisan class. The ensuing class warfare gradually transformed most Greek city-states from aristocracies into mixtures of oligarchy and democracy, with the proportions of each varying from state to state."
The Idea of Liberty is Western
, by Ludwig von Mises
, American Affairs
, Oct 1950
Argues that the "idea of liberty is and has always been peculiar to the West", meaning primarily the cities of ancient Greece, and discusses "liberty" as viewed by Harold Laski, contrasting, for example, life under Stalin with Italy under fascism
"There were among the Greek authors also champions of government omnipotence, such as Plato. But the essential tenor of Greek ideology was the pursuit of liberty. ... In denying it to metics and slaves they virtually advocated the despotic rule of an hereditary caste of oligarchs. Yet it would be a grave error to dismiss their hymns to liberty as mendacious."
The Roots of Modern Libertarian Ideas
, by Brian Doherty, Cato Policy Report
, Mar 2007
Survey of the history of libertarian ideas, from ancient China and Greece to 20th century writers
"In classical Greece, Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus (featuring Prometheus defying Zeus in the name of a justice higher than the gods), Antigone by Sophocles, and Euripides's attacks in various plays on slavery and the barbarity of war indicate a people who understood the distinction between what earthly, or even divine, authority commanded and what was right and just."