Territory in central Europe, ruled since 1955 by the Republik Österreich

Austria (German: Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,879 km². The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m, and its highest point is 3,798 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian and Slovene.

Deathplace of

Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, in Kramsach, Tirol, on 27 Aug 1914

Measures of Freedom

Austria | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 95, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
"Along with other countries in the European Union (EU), Austria experienced a large influx of asylum seekers and other migrants in 2015, many of them from Syria. The migration flow formed the background for increasingly stronger populist rhetoric from the ring-wing Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) party, which made gains in local elections in October."
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 8.53, Rank: 11, Personal Freedom: 9.50, Economic Freedom: 7.56, Democracy Index: 8.32
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.56, Rank: 28

Articles

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk: A Sesquicentennial Appreciation, by Richard Ebeling, The Freeman, Feb 2001
Broad biographical essay, including Böhm-Bawerk relationships with Menger, Mises and Schumpeter, and his two major works
"In January 1914 there appeared three articles in one of the leading newspapers in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, by Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, ... a three-time minister of finance. He warned his readers that the Austrian government was following a policy of fiscal irresponsibility. During the preceding three years, government expenditures had increased by 60 percent, and for each of these years the government’s deficit had equaled approximately 15 percent of total spending. The reason, Böhm-Bawerk said, was that the Austrian parliament and government were enveloped in a spider's web of special-interest politics."
Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk: Capital, Interest, and Time, by Roger W. Garrison, 15 Great Austrian Economists, Jan 1999
Biographical and bibliographical essay; chapter 8 of 15 Great Austrian Economists
"Böhm-Bawerk's ... later years were dominated by his duties as the Austrian Minister of Finance, a position he held, though not continuously, throughout the 1890s and beyond-and for which he is fittingly honored by having his likeness on Austria's one-hundred schilling note. After serving in this capacity and assuming other governmental duties, he returned to teaching in 1904."
Ludwig von Mises, socialism's greatest enemy: His life and times, by Jim Powell
Lengthy biographical essay on Mises, including details on Menger and Böhm-Bawerk
"'Ignaz Seipel became Chancellor of Austria. Dr. Seipel, a Roman Catholic priest, honest and conscientious but naive about finance, was not the usual politician. Mises helped convince Seipel that inflation had to be stopped. ... Seipel emphasized that if stopping inflation was the moral thing to do, he would do it regardless of the short-term effects. He did it and was re-elected in 1923.'"

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Austria" as of 18 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.