Territory in north central Europe, ruled since 1990 by the Bundesrepublik Deutschland

Germany (German: Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a country in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometers, and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With nearly 83 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen. The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover and Nuremberg.

Birthplace of

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, in Frankfurt am Main, on 28 Aug 1749
Ludwig Lachmann, in Berlin, on 1906
Franz Oppenheimer, in Berlin, on 30 Mar 1864
Wilhelm Röpke, in Schwarmstedt, Hannover, on 10 Oct 1899
Hans Sennholz, on 3 Feb 1922
Max Weber, in Erfurt, on 21 Apr 1864

Home To

Partei der Vernunft, Schlierbach

Deathplace of

John Dalberg-Acton, in Tegernsee, Bavaria, on 19 Jun 1902
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, in Weimar, on 22 Mar 1832
Hugo Grotius, in Rostock, on 28 Aug 1645
Friedrich Hayek, in Freiburg, on 23 Mar 1992
Max Weber, in Munich, on 14 Jun 1920

Conferences and Conventions

Liberty International, ISIL 24th Annual World Conference, in Cologne, from 15 Jul to 20 Jul 2005

Measures of Freedom

Germany | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 95, Political Rights: 1, Civil Liberties: 1
"More than one million refugees entered Germany in 2015, the majority coming from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq. This record-breaking influx, which heavily strained the resources of the German government, led to contested public discussions about immigration and asylum. Anti-immigration violence increased amid the crisis, with the Ministry of the Interior recording a sharp rise in attacks on refugee shelters during the year."
Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
2014: 8.49, Rank: 13, Personal Freedom: 9.44, Economic Freedom: 7.55, Democracy Index: 8.52
Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
2014: 7.55, Rank: 30


Albert Jay Nock: A Gifted Pen for Radical Individualism, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Mar 1997
Biographical essay, including his early life, editorship of The Freeman, and notable books and essays
"For instance, he witnessed the 1923 German runaway inflation: 'I crossed from Amsterdam to Berlin with German money in my bill-fold amounting nearly to $1,250,000, pre-war value. Ten years earlier I could have bought out half a German town, lock, stock and barrel, with that much money, but when I left Amsterdam my best hope was that it might cover a decent dinner and a night's lodging.'"
Along Pennsylvania Avenue, by Murray Rothbard, Faith and Freedom, Dec 1954
Discusses (a) the world outlook after the 1954 Paris agreements, expressing hope "prospects for continued peace" and (b) the rise in coffee prices, pointing the finger at the Brazilian and U.S. governments
"The apparent victory of the Paris agreements, however, will erect a jerry-built structure. It does not perform the EDC job of chaining Germany and the other countries to a supranational organization at the beck of Washington. ... The agreements leave Germany deprived of the Eastern half of its territory, and of its coal-rich Saar Valley. Eventually, the German urge toward reunification can lead to a World War or to a policy of outright neutralism, with the latter hopefully far more likely."
Related Topics: Brazil, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Benjamin Tucker, Individualism, & Liberty: Not the Daughter but the Mother of Order, by Wendy McElroy, Literature of Liberty, 1981
Bibliographical essay covering the people and radical movements that influenced Tucker in his founding and publishing of Liberty, its major themes and contributors
"His attempt to establish libertarianism as an international movement was best exemplified by Libertas (1888), a German language version of Liberty, published by Tucker and edited by George and Emma Schumm. 'This will be the only thoroughly Anarchistic German journal ever published in the world...' Tucker wrote in announcing Libertas. 'The paper will be of the same shape and size as the English Liberty, and the two will alternate in the order of publication—the English appearing one week and the German the next.' Libertas was short-lived."
Give Me Liberty [PDF], by Rose Wilder Lane, 1936
Originally published as an article titled "Credo" in the Saturday Evening Post; describes her experiences in and history of Soviet Russia and Europe, contrasting them with the history of the United States, emphasizing the individualist themes
"Marx wanted Hegel's 'freedom' for 'the working classes. Bismarck took the idea from Hegel and Marx, used it to crush the German liberals, and founded upon it his Socialpolitik, which is now called Social Security here. ... After crushing the attempt to establish human rights in Germany, Bismarck built the centralized, socialized, despotic German State, and the world's statesmen and reactionary thinkers fervently admired it. Forty years ago, America's parrot-intellectuals were ceaselessly repeating, 'Germany is fifty years ahead of us in social legislation.'"
Goethe on National Greatness, by Hans-Hermann Hoppe, The Free Market, Oct 1999
Discusses Goethe's thoughts on political centralization, as told to Johann Peter Eckermann, contrasting the German Confederation (Bund) to centralized France
"From 1648 until the Napoleonic wars, Germany consisted of some 234 countries, 51 free cities, and about 1,500 independent knightly manors. Of this multitude of independent political units, only Austria counted as a great power, and only Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and Hannover could be considered major political players. Saxe-Weimar was one of the smaller and poorer countries, encompassing just a few dozen villages and small towns. As a result of the Vienna Congress of 1815 following Napoleon's defeat, the number of independent political territories was reduced to thirty-nine."
Hitler's Mutual Admiration Society, by Jacob Hornberger, 29 Oct 2003
How Empires Bamboozle the Bourgeoisie, by Lew Rockwell, Mises Daily, 28 Oct 2006
Comments on two issues, related to the U.S. population reaching 300 million, which Rockwell not being addressed: what kind of economy is needed to support that population and do all these people need to live under the same central government
"World War I had ended with many resentments stewing ... Germany in particular was ripe for bamboozlement by a leader who could tap into the resentment concerning lost territories. The leader would convince the people that the urge for justice can only be satisfied by re-creating an empire, and only the strongest possible leader could manage to accomplish this against all odds. Mises wrote with an impassioned desire to stop the course of events. 'It would be the most terrible misfortune for Germany and for all humanity if the idea of revenge should dominate the German policy of the future,' he wrote. "
How Franklin Roosevelt Lied America Into War, by William Henry Chamberlin, Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace, 1953
Excerpted from chapter 8, "The Bankruptcy of a Policy", of the Harry Elmer Barnes anthology; describes several actions by Roosevelt and his administration which contradicted his campaign pledges "to keep our country out of war"
"... so-called naval patrols, the purpose of which was to report the presence of German submarines to British warships, in the Atlantic in April, 1941. ... The orders to American warships to shoot at sight at German submarines, formally announced on September 11. The beginning of actual hostilities may be dated from this time rather than from the German declaration of war, which followed Pearl Harbor. ... the American and British governments knew ... that Hitler was contemplating an early attack upon the Soviet Union. Such an attack was bound to swallow up much the greater part of Germany's military resources."
Middle-of-the-Road Policy Leads to Socialism, by Ludwig von Mises, 18 Apr 1950
Speech to the University Club of New York; argues that the middle of the road policies of interventionism, such as price controls and progressive taxation, eventually lead to socialism via central planning
"The Germans, in the first World War, began with price ceilings for a small group of consumers' goods considered as vital necessities. It was the inevitable failure of these measures that impelled them to go further and further ... The total defeat of the Kaiser swept the whole imperial apparatus of administration away and with it went also the grandiose plan. But when in 1931 Chancellor Brüning embarked anew on a policy of price control and his successors, first of all Hitler, obstinately clung to it, the same story repeated itself."
Professor Ludwig von Mises Discusses Free Enterprise, La Prensa, 2 Jun 1959
Translation of interview with Ludwig von Mises upon visiting Buenos Aires; discusses Mises' views on free enterprise, inflation, the policies of De Gaulle and Adenauer and the possibility of an Argentine economic recovery
"He added later that 'regarding this, the French government is applying the policy adopted with success by Dr. Adenauer's government in West Germany.' He also said that 'the economic measures that the German government took to this effect, were taken against the will of the occupying Western powers; only after they were applied was it seen how beneficial they were for the consolidation of a healthy currency and for German economic development.'"
Röpke, Wilhelm (1899-1966), by Aaron Steelman, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
Biographical essay
"Röpke was a professor of economics at the University of Marburg when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933. An outspoken critic of the Nazis, Röpke left his native Germany that same year ... Along with Walter Eucken, Alexander Rüstow, and others, Röpke advised Ludwig Erhard on how to reform the West German economy following World War II. This group of Ordoliberals, as they came to be known, pushed for a substantially more market-oriented system than that which preceded it, along with a modest system of transfer payments consistent with modern welfare state goals."
Related Topic: Wilhelm Röpke
Sophie Scholl: A Life of Courage, by Wendy McElroy, Future of Freedom, May 2007
Review of the 2005 German film Sophie Scholl: The Final Days (Die letzten Tage), also contrasting this film with typical Hollywood depictions of Nazis
"Sophie and her brother, Hans, were leading members of ... the White Rose. Five students ... formed the group in 1942 at the University of Munich. ... This brilliantly crafted film ... is confirmation that German filmmaking, which has arguably been in decline since the 1970s, is reestablishing its reputation for innovation and excellence. ... Rather than publicly admit to losing an entire army at Stalingrad, the regime viciously cracks down on dissidents ... This is the juncture in Nazi history at which the minister for public enlightenment and propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, delivers his famous "total war" speech."
The Fallacy of the Concept of "National Character", by Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government, 1944
Section 2 of chapter 10, "Nazism as a World Problem"; explains why it is incorrect to generalize from some supposedly representative persons of a given nation to a national "character"
"The most popular interpretation of the ascendancy of Nazism explains it as an outcome of the German national character. The holders of this theory search German literature and history for texts, quotations, and deeds indicating aggressiveness, rapacity, and lust for conquest. From these scraps of knowledge they deduce the German national character, and from the character so established the rise of Nazism. ... But it is no less easy to discover the same characteristics in the history and literature of other linguistic groups, e.g., Italian, French, and English."
The Mont Pelerin Society's 50th Anniversary: The Society Helps Keep Alight the Lamp of Classical Liberalism, by Greg Kaza, The Freeman, Jun 1997
Historical and anecdotal essay about the founding of the Mont Pelerin Society and its first meeting
"The German currency was virtually worthless at the end of World War II, cigarettes having emerged as the preferred medium of exchange. In many cases, Eucken told the conference, farmers refused to sell their foodstuffs for any kind of currency. If you lived in a city and wanted food, you packed your furniture and carted it to a farm in search of potatoes. Barter was not merely theory in postwar Germany. The underground economy was economic fact."
The Secret State, by Carl Oglesby, 19 Dec 1991
Details various events from the dismantling of the Office of Strategic Services after World War II to the 1991 death of Danny Casolaro, which Oglesby said are reason to be worried about "a secret and invisible state within the public state"
"Days after the Nazi surrender in May 1945, a US Army command center in southern Germany was approached by Nazi Brigadier General Reinhard Gehlen. Gehlen was the chief of the Nazi intelligence apparatus known as the FHO, Foreign Armies East. ... fulfilling one of the terms of the secret treaty of Fort Hunt in 1945, the entire Gehlen Org was transferred to the new West German government, which gave it the name of the Federal Intelligence Service, or BND, and which the descendants of General Gehlen serve to this day. The BND continued to serve as the backbone of NATO intelligence ..."
Totalitarian Busybodies: The horrors of the Stasi's East Germany, by Glenn Garvin, Reason, Jan 2006
Review of Stasiland: True Stories from Behind the Berlin Wall by Anna Funder and After the Wall: Confessions from an East German Childhood and the Life That Came Next by Jana Hensel
"That assessment may misjudge the pressures felt by average East Germans. They did try to rebel in 1953 with a series of violent street protests that two Russian armored divisions quickly crushed. ... Political resistance in East Germany would be dealt with not by the Berlin regime but its Soviet puppet masters ..."
Related Topics: Cuba, Nicaragua


Omnipotent Government: The Rise of the Total State and Total War, by Ludwig von Mises, 1944
Partial contents: German Liberalism - The Triumph of Militarism - Etatism - Etatism and Nationalism - Refutation of Some Fallacious Explanations - The Peculiar Characteristics of German Nationalism - The Social Democrats in Imperial Germany
Related Topic: War

The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Germany" as of 16 Sep 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.