Signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation and Constitution

Reference

Robert Morris (merchant) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Robert Morris, Jr. (January 31, 1734 - May 8, 1806) was an American merchant and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Morris was known as the Financier of the Revolution, because of his role in securing financial assistance for the American Colonial side in the Revolutionary War. ..."

Born

20 Jan 1734, in Liverpool, England

Died

8 May 1806, in Philadelphia

Biography

A Biography of Robert Morris 1734-1806, by Jeroen Daanen, 3 May 2003
"From Revolution to Reconstruction", Department of Humanities Computing, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Robert Morris: 1733-1806, by John Vinci, 31 Jan 2004
Colonial Hall
Robert Morris
ushistory.org, Independence Hall Association

Articles

Empire or Liberty: The Antifederalists and Foreign Policy, 1787-1788 [PDF], by Jonathan Marshall, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1980
"Few Federalists harbored any doubts as to America's future greatness under a centralized, energetic regime. ... Robert Morris foresaw the establishment of an American empire of 'power, consequence, and grandeur.'"
The man who financed the American Revolution, by Jim Powell
"The Continental Congress was broke, there was runaway inflation, and Morris dealt with anxious creditors. ... Revisionist historians like E. James Ferguson have emphasized how Morris profited from the Revolutionary War. ... He proposed a land tax, a poll tax, an excise tax and a house tax to help generate revenue for paying debts, but the states wouldn't agree."
The Scoundrel Robert Morris, by Douglas E. French, The Free Market, Feb 1995
"America's bankers consider Robert Morris a hero. ... An 'American patriot'? Hardly. Did he finance the Revolutionary War? Just the opposite. ... Morris voted against independence in July 1776 ... Morris sponsored poll taxes, property taxes, commodity taxes, and customs duties. ... Morris did help establish our fraudulent fractional-reserve banking system."

Writings

Robert Morris to President of Congress, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 15 Jan 1782
Report, as U.S. Superintendent of Finance, to the Congress (under the Articles of Confederation); examines weights, measures and money practices in various states and countries, particularly England and France, and recommends coinage of U.S. dollars
"As we are now shaking off the Inconveniencies of a depreciating Medium the present Moment seems to be that in which a general Currency can best be established so as that in a few Months the same Names of Money will mean the same Things in the several Parts of the United States. ... Altho most Nations have coined Copper yet that Metal is so impure that it has never been considered as constituting the Money Standard. This is affixed to the two precious Metals because they alone will admit of having their intrinsic Value precisely ascertained."
Related Topics: Gold Standard, Money