German sociologist and economist, author of The State
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  • Franz Oppenheimer

    Franz Oppenheimer (30 March 1864 – 30 September 1943) was a German sociologist and political economist, who published also in the area of the fundamental sociology of the state.

    Reference

    Oppenheimer, Franz (1864-1943), by George H. Smith, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, 15 Aug 2008
    Biographical essay
    "Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist, practiced as a physician in Berlin for many years, after which he took up the study of economics while supporting himself by writing articles. ... Oppenheimer was influential in shaping modern libertarian thought through his book Der Staat (The State, 1914). ... This treatise offers a detailed description of the origins of the state, which Oppenheimer claimed began in conquest. According to Oppenheimer, 'the State grew from the subjection of one group of men by another. Its basic justification, its raison d’être, was and is the economic exploitation of those subjugated.'"
    Related Topics: Albert Jay Nock, Society, The State

    Web Sites

    Franz Oppenheimer :: Liberaler Sozialismus
    Mostly in German, but several items in English, Spanish, French and other languages; includes bibliography, articles and books by and about Oppenheimer, in original and translation, short biographies and photographs

    Bibliography

    Franz Oppenheimer Bibliographie, by Werner Kruck, 13 Mar 2006
    In German, includes over 50 monographs and more than 300 essays; based on Felicia Fuss' "A Bibliography of Franz Oppenheimer", American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 1946-1947; additional input from the author and from Franz Ritzmann

    Articles

    Albert Jay Nock: A Gifted Pen for Radical Individualism, by Jim Powell, The Freeman, Mar 1997
    Biographical essay, including his early life, editorship of The Freeman, and notable books and essays
    "Nock absorbed the ideas of German sociologist Franz Oppenheimer, whose radical book Der Staat was published in 1908. An English translation, The State, appeared in 1915. Oppenheimer had noted that there were only two fundamental ways of acquiring wealth—work and robbery. He declared that government was based on robbery."
    Revisiting a Libertarian Classic: Nock's Our Enemy, the State, by Sheldon Richman, Future of Freedom, Mar 2006
    Examines some of the major themes of Nock's Our Enemy, the State
    "Nock begins by drawing the contrast between what he called social power and state power. Here he reflects the influence of the classical-liberal sociologist Franz Oppenheimer, whose earlier book, The State, distinguished the only two ways to obtain wealth: the economic means and the political means. As Oppenheimer wrote, 'There are two fundamentally opposed means whereby man, requiring sustenance, is impelled to obtain the necessary means for satisfying his desires. These are work and robbery, one's own labor and the forcible appropriation of the labor of others ...'"
    The Anatomy of the State, by Murray Rothbard, 1974
    Examines several attributes of the State, including how it maintains and grows itself and how it deals with other States
    "The great German sociologist Franz Oppenheimer pointed out that there are two mutually exclusive ways of acquiring wealth; one ... he called the 'economic means.' The other ... is the method of one-sided confiscation, of theft of the property of others. This is the method which Oppenheimer termed 'the political means' to wealth."
    The Roots of Modern Libertarian Ideas, by Brian Doherty, Cato Policy Report, Mar 2007
    Survey of the history of libertarian ideas, from ancient China and Greece to 20th century writers
    "Libertarian ideas about human politics go back even to prehistory, to the creation of the state itself. Although theories of the origins of the state are merely implicit in most libertarian writers, the German anthropologist Franz Oppenheimer described its origin in The State as being in blood and conquest, the result of conquerors trying to live off others' efforts through taxation and the provision of 'protection.' Oppenheimer distinguished between the 'political' means of acquiring wealth—taking it—and the 'economic' means—production and exchange."

    Books Authored

    The State: Its History and Development Viewed Sociologically, 1908
    Contents: Theories of the State - The Genesis of the State - The Primitive Feudal State - The Maritime State - The Development of the Feudal State - The Development of the Constitutional State - The Tendency of the Development of the State
    Related Topic: The State

    The introductory paragraph uses material from the Wikipedia article "Franz Oppenheimer" as of 05 Aug 2018, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.