Territory in southeast South America, ruled since 1861 by the República Argentina
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  • Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbour Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km², Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Spanish: Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system.

    Birthplace of

    Juan Bautista Alberdi, in Tucumán, on 29 Aug 1810

    Home To

    Fundacion Libertad, Rosario

    Events of Interest

    Argentine Declaration of Independence, in San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán, on 9 Jul 1816

    Measures of Freedom

    Argentina | Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2016
    2016: Status: Free, Aggregate Score: 79, Political Rights: 2, Civil Liberties: 2
    "In November 2015, Argentines elected Buenos Aires mayor Mauricio Macri of the centrist Cambiemos coalition as their next president. This ended a dozen years of rule by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and her late husband, Néstor Kirchner, who held the presidency before her. By a slim 51.4 to 48.6 percent margin, Macri defeated Daniel Scioli of the ruling Front for Victory (FPV) coalition, a faction of the Justicialist Party, also known as the Peronist Party."
    Human Freedom Index [PDF], The Human Freedom Index 2016
    2014: 6.52, Rank: 103, Personal Freedom: 8.22, Economic Freedom: 4.81, Democracy Index: 6.57
    Level of Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom of the World
    2014: 4.81, Rank: 156

    Articles

    A Libertarian Visits South America, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Mar 1999
    Relates Hornberger's trip to visit the Instituto de Estudos Empresariais in Brazil and the Fundación Atlas para una Sociedad Libre in Argentina
    "During the debate, I pointed out Argentina's libertarian history before Peron's presidency. Taxes were low, economic regulations were few, and the borders were open to trade and immigration. The result was that Argentina had one of the highest standards of living in the world. (See 'Classical Liberalism in Argentina: A Lesson for the World' by Jacob G. Hornberger, Freedom Daily, July 1994 ...) The debate was published in La Nacion's Sunday edition."
    Classical Liberalism in Argentina: A Lesson for the World, by Jacob G. Hornberger, Future of Freedom, Jul 1994
    Recounts highlights of Argentine history from the 1810 revolution to the late 20th century, arguing that the period from the ouster of Rosas in 1852 to the military coup of 1930 demonstrated the validity of Adam Smith's writings
    "In 1852, [a brutal tyrant by the name of Juan Manuel de Rosas] was overthrown and forced into exile. The outcome was one of the most unusual periods in the history of man. Nothing like it appears anywhere else in all of Latin American history. The period from 1850 to 1930 in Argentine history is a model — a beacon shining through the darkness of history — a confirmation that what Adam Smith had discovered was true."
    Don't Cry for Evita, by Bill Bonner, The Daily Reckoning, 12 May 2006
    Reflections upon visiting the Recoleta cemetery in Buenos Aires and viewing the tomb of Eva Perón, describing much of her story
    "Juan Peron was then 48 years old. His first wife had died. He has spent his career in the army and greatly admired the way Mussolini had handled Italy, some of which he had seen firsthand during officer training in the 1930s. In 1943, when he met Eva, Peron wanted to do in Argentina what Mussolini had been able to do in Italy – line up the support of the working classes and take control of the government."
    Professor Ludwig von Mises Discusses Free Enterprise, La Prensa, 2 Jun 1959
    Translation of interview with Ludwig von Mises upon visiting Buenos Aires; discusses Mises' views on free enterprise, inflation, the policies of De Gaulle and Adenauer and the possibility of an Argentine economic recovery
    "We later asked the visitor about Argentina's economic troubles and the possibilities of a recovery, and he told us that 'at the end of the last world conflagration, other countries found themselves in far worse conditions and with much more serious problems than Argentina faces today, and they were able to recover and even develop a flourishing economy.' He pointed out the importance of the financial aspect in every economic recovery program, and repeated the 'need to combat inflation.'"
    UpdThe Authority of a Foreign Talisman: A Study of U.S. Constitutional Practice as Authority in Nineteenth Century Argentina and the Argentine Elite's Leap of Faith, by Jonathan M. Miller, American University Law Review, Jun 1997
    Examines the history of Argentine law prior to adoption of the 1853 Constitution, the arguments in Alberdi's Bases and the influence of the U.S. Constitution during the remainder of the 19th century and up to 1930
    "Unlike the U.S. Constitution, which enshrined governmental institutions that already had strong roots, the Argentine Constitution was a forward-looking vision of what its drafters wished Argentina to become. Juan Bautista Alberdi and Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the two leaders of the group, shared a basic constitutional vision consisting of free immigration, economic growth, and the full protection of the individual liberties necessary to encourage immigration and investment."
    The Life, Death, and Resurrection of an Economy, by Michael C. Monson, The Freeman, May 1993
    Lengthy economic history of Argentina, from the time of the conquistadors to the early 1990's, highlighting the outstanding growth in the 19th and early 20th century and the economic nationalism and government interventions in the 20th century
    "The results of embracing free-market principles were dramatic. During the 50-year period preceding World War I, Argentina experienced a phenomenal rate of economic growth, one virtually without parallel in world history. ... The three decades spanning the turn of the century were years of stunning economic growth. ... It was a period, for the most part, of laissez-faire capitalism. Foreign investments and immigration were encouraged. Personal liberty and economic liberty were supported."
    The Way of All Cash, Part I, by Bill Bonner, The Daily Reckoning, 26 May 2006
    Continuing from "Don't Cry for Evita", begins to relate the story of Argentine President Juan Perón and the Peronist movement
    "At the opening of the 20th century, Argentine farmers enjoyed a land of milk and honey – with rising farm prices! Argentines were getting rich, shipping agricultural products to Europe. ... At least, at first, it also seemed that Argentina was spared the cultural decline of Europe. ... Its armies never got into either world war. It never suffered a great depression in the '30s. Life in Buenos Aires was safe and civilized ... But then, suddenly, the people of the pampas too caught the populist bug."
    Related Topic: World War II
    The Way of All Cash, Part II, by Bill Bonner, The Daily Reckoning, 2 Jun 2006
    Second and final installment of the history of the Peronist movement in Argentina, covering the period from the late 1980's to the early 2000's, as well as going back to before the 1930's and discussing Perón's terms in office
    "By late 2000, one out of every five bonds issued by an emerging-market country was Argentina. Investors began to wonder how the country could ever make good on so much debt. Speculators started dumping Argentine bonds and withdrawing capital from the country. Scarcely a year later, the whole jig was up. The currency peg was soon broken. The peso collapsed, and along with it, the Argentine economy. Unemployment soared. Banks were closed. Deposits were confiscated. And the Argentine middle class was practically wiped out."

    Books

    Bases y Puntos de Partida para la Organización Política de la República Argentina, by Juan Bautista Alberdi, 1852
    Bases and Starting Points for the Political Organization of the Argentine Republic, in Spanish; partial contents: Idea de la manera práctica de organizar el gobierno mixto que se propone, tomada de los gobiernos federales de Norteamérica, Suiza y Alemania

    The introductory paragraph uses material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.